Surgical wound dehiscence after laparotomy remains a serious complication. It presents a mechanical failure of wound healing of surgical incisions. Surgical incisions stimulate the healing process which in reality is a complex and continous process with four different stages: Hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation .
During hemostasis, platelets aggregate, degranulate and activate blood clotting. The clot is degrading, the capillaries dilates and fluids flow to the wound site, activating the complement cascade.
Macrophages, lysis of cells and neutrophills are a source of cytokines and growth factors that are essential for normal wound healing [1, 2].
The proliferation phase which is the phase of granulation tissue forms in, the wound space begins in the 3 postoperative day and lasts for several weeks.
The most important factor in this phase are fibroblasts which move to the wound and are responsible for the collagen synthesis [3, 4]. The maturation phase begins in the 7 postoperative day and lasts for 1 year or more, continued collagen deposition and remodeling contribute to the increased tensile strength of wounds.
Post laparotomy wound dehiscence occurs in 0,25% to 3% of laparotomy patients and immediate operation is required which has a death rate of 20% [2, 5, 6].
Conditions associated with increased risk of wound dehiscence are anemia, hypoalbuminemia, malnutrition, malignancy, jaundice, obesity and diabetes, male gender, elderly patients and specific surgical procedures as colon surgery or emergency laparotomy which are associated with wound disruption [7, 8].
The aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively the risk factoers of wound dehiscence and to determine which of them can be revert.