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Table 1 Review of penetrating skull base injuries caused by screwdriver

From: Emergency surgery in a severe penetrating skull base injury by a screwdriver: case report and literature review

Author Cases Cause Therapy Outcome Comments
Smrkolj V. 1995 two Homicidal attempt Surgery Died Left hemiplegia, right internal carotid artery thrombosis
   Suicidal attempt Surgery Died Brain edema and right anterior cerebral artery infarction
Anderson S.A. 1996 one Suicidal attempt No surgery Survived Right orbital injury No deficits
Evans R.J. 1996 one Accident No surgery Died Hard palate impalement
Li T. 2000 one Homicidal attempt No surgery Died Two weeks later: basilar-cavernous fistula and basilar artery aneurysm
Tutton M.G. 2000 four Homicidal attempt No surgery Survived Left parietal hemorrhage involving lateral ventricles; right hemiplegia, mild dysphasia
    No surgery Survived Intracerebral haematoma in the left frontal lobe with an overlying skull vault fracture
    Surgery Died Depression of the left temporal fossa with acute sub-dural hemorrhage (died two days after surgery)
    No Surgery Died Tip of the screwdriver penetrated into the brain stem
Wong S.C. 2002 one Accident No surgery Survived Traumatic optic neuropathy
De Tommasi A. 2006 one Accident Surgery Survived No deficits