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Table 3 Benefits and limitations of each imaging modality

From: State of the art: noninvasive imaging and management of neurovascular trauma

Modality Direct visualization of injury Evaluation of surrounding tissues Evaluation of entire vascular tree  
Duplex US + - --  
Transcranial Doppler --- --- --  
CTA ++ +++ ++  
MRA ++ ++ ++  
Catheter angiography +++ -- +++  
Modality Independent of operator Readily available Resolution of vessels Low cost
Duplex US --- ++ ++ +++
Transcranial Doppler --- - -- ++
CTA ++ ++ ++ -
MRA + - + -
Catheter angiography - -- +++ --