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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of head and neck cancer cases and controls according collected variables[12]

From: A critical appraisal of epidemiological studies comes from basic knowledge: a reader's guide to assess potential for biases

Variable Cases n (%) Controls n (%) p value*
Age groups (years)    0.168
< 60 35 (28.2) 88 (35.3)  
> 60 89 (71.8) 161 (64.7)  
Total 124 249  
Gender    0.123
Male 105 (84.7) 194 (77.9)  
Female 19 (15.3) 55 (22.1)  
Total 124 249  
Weight ± SD (Kg) 72.70 ± 12.40 73.09 ± 12.15 0.775†
Alcohol consumption    0.001
No alcohol 37 (30.3) 107 (44.8)  
1–30 gr/die 53 (43.4) 122 (51)  
> 30 gr/die 32 (26.2) 10 (4.2)  
Total 122 239  
Fruit intake    0.197
≤ 1/day 69 (57.0) 153 (76.5)  
>1/day 52 (43.0) 86 (23.5)  
Total 121 239  
Vegetable intake    0.678
≤ 1/day 95 (78.5) 183 (76.6)  
>1/day 26 (21.5) 56 (23.4)  
Total 121 239  
Smoking status    0.001
Never smokers 17 (14.0) 133 (55.6)  
Ever smokers 104 (86.0) 106 (44.4)  
Total 121 239  
Physical activity    0.001
Never 109 (90.8) 172 (72.0)  
1–4 times/month 2 (1.7) 43 (18.0)  
>4 times/month 9 (7.5) 24 (10.0)  
Total 120 239  
Solvents    0.003
No 115 (95.0) 238 (99.6)  
Yes 6 (5.0) 1 (0.4)  
Total 121 239  
Paints    0.004
No 114 (94.2) 238 (99.2)  
Yes 7 (5.8) 2 (0.8)  
Total 121 240  
  1. * χ2 test used to test statistically significant differences between groups; † Student's t-test