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Table 5 Treatment options classified by type of infection and clinical picture

From: Necrotizing fasciitis: literature review of contemporary strategies for diagnosing and management with three case reports: torso, abdominal wall, upper and lower limbs

Type of NSTI Depth of involvement Usual pathogens Predisposing factors Time of incubation and rate of progression The main clinical signs Treatment options
Polymicrobial NF-type I fascia and muscle obligate and facultative anaerobes different type of wounds long
(48-96 h) Hour to days
foul- smelling drainage ICU stay
critical care therapy
surgery
antibiotics
ev. HBO
Monomicrobial
NF-type II
(Steptococcal gangrene)
skin, fascia and muscle Streptococci -groups A, C, G, and B;
(B is more common)
excoriation or cut wound short
(6-48 h)
A few hour
distinct margins ICU stay
critical care therapy
surgery
antibiotics
ev. HBO
Gas gangrene
(Clostridial myonecrosis)
muscle C. perfirngens
(C. perfirngens more common) and C. novyi
tidy wounds short
(6-48 h)
A few hour
extreme system toxicity ICU stay
critical care therapy
surgery
antibiotics
HBO
   C. septicum gastrointestinal lesion    
Non-Clostridial myonecrosis muscle and fascia obligate and facultative anaerobes or A. hydrophila different type of wounds variable
(12-96 h) Hour to days
gas in soft tissue ICU stay
critical care therapy surgery
antibiotics
HBO