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Table 1 STARD checklist for the reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy

From: Bologna Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction (ASBO): 2010 Evidence-Based Guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery

Section and Topic Item #  
TITLE/ABSTRACT/KEYWORDS 1 Identify the article as a study of diagnostic accuracy (recommended MeSH heading 'sensitivity and specificity')
INTRODUCTION 2 State the research questions or study aims, such as estimating diagnostic accuracy or comparing accuracy between tests or across participant groups
Participants 3 Describe the study population: The inclusion and exclusion criteria, setting and locations where the data were collected
  4 Describe participant recruitment: Was recruitment based on presenting symptoms, results from previous tests, or the fact that the participants had received the index tests or the reference standard?
  5 Describe participant sampling: Was the study population a consecutive series of participants defined by the selection criteria in items 3 and 4? If not, specify how participants were further selected
Test methods 6 Describe data collection: Was data collection planned before the index test and reference standard were performed (prospective study) or after (retrospective study)?
  7 Describe the reference standard and its rationale
  8 Describe technical specifications of material and methods involved including how and when measurements were taken, and/or cite references for index tests and reference standard
  9 Describe definition of and rationale for the units, cutoffs and/or categories of the results of the index tests and the reference standard
  10 Describe the number, training and expertise of the persons executing and reading the index tests and the reference standard
Statistical methods 11 Describe whether or not the readers of the index tests and reference standard were blind (masked) to the results of the other test and describe any other clinical information available to the readers
  12 Describe methods for calculating or comparing measures of diagnostic accuracy, and the statistical methods used to quantify uncertainty (e.g. 95% confidence intervals)
RESULTS 13 Describe methods for calculating test reproducibility, if done
  14 Report when study was done, including beginning and ending dates of recruitment
  15 Report clinical and demographic characteristics of the study population (e.g. age, sex, spectrum of presenting symptoms, comorbidity, current treatments, recruitment centers
Test results 16 Report the number of participants satisfying the criteria for inclusion that did or did not undergo the index tests and/or the reference standard; describe why participants failed to receive either test (a flow diagram is strongly recommended)
  17 Report time interval from the index tests to the reference standard, and any treatment administered between
  18 Report distribution of severity of disease (define criteria) in those with the target condition; other diagnoses in participants without the target condition
  19 Report a cross tabulation of the results of the index tests (including indeterminate and missing results) by the results of the reference standard; for continuous results, the distribution of the test results by the results of the reference standard
Estimates 20 Report any adverse events from performing the index tests or the reference standard
  21 Report estimates of diagnostic accuracy and measures of statistical uncertainty (e.g. 95% confidence intervals)
  22 Report how indeterminate results, missing responses and outliers of the index tests were handled.
  23 Report estimates of variability of diagnostic accuracy between subgroups of participants, readers or centers, if done.
DISCUSSION 24 Report estimates of test reproducibility, if done
  25 Discuss the clinical applicability of the study findings
  1. MeSH: Medical subject heading
  2. STARD: STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies
  3. This checklist is found at: and