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Table 4 Reports in the literature of Type 1 and 2 duodenal injuries caused by endoscopic procedures

From: Endoscopic duodenal perforation: surgical strategies in a regional centre

Case/series N = Range of management strategies for: Average days in hospital Case fatality (%)
Duodenal injury Retroperitoneal necrosis Underlying pathology
Stapfer et al. 2000 [13] 8 Pyloric exclusion and gastro-jejunostomy Drain placement Cholecystectomy 62.9 2 (25%)
Tube duodenostomy   CBD exploration
Duodeno-antrectomy   Hepatico-jejunostomy
Preetha et al. 2003 [25] 13 Primary repair Not described Cholecystectomy 23.8 3 (23.1%)
Pyloric exclusion and gastro-jejunostomy   CBD exploration
T-tube   Hepatico-jejunostomy
Bowel decompression     
Kalyani et al. 2005 [26] 1 Jejunal serosal patch Not required Nil required >15 0 (0%)
Melita et al. 2005 [27] 1 Nil required CT-guided abscess drainage Nil required Not specified 0 (0%)
Wu et al. 2006 [18] 10 Primary repair Drain placement Cholecystectomy 31.4 4 (40%)
Omental patch Open abscess drainage CBD exploration
Duodenostomy Percutaneous abscess drainage Cholecysto-jejunostomy
Fatima et al. 2007 [28] 22 Primary repair Drain placement Choledocho-jejunostomy 16 3 (13.6%)
Omental patch   
Knudson et al. 2008 [29] 12 Primary repair Drain placement Hepatico-jejunostomy 4.5 0 (0%)
T-tube Open abscess drainage  
Omental patch   
Duodenostomy tube   
Gastrostomy   
Jejunostomy tube   
Pyloric exclusion   
Mao et al. 2008 [30] 3 Nil required Drain placement Cholecystectomy 50 0 (0%)
CBD exploration
T-tube
Angiò et al. 2009 [31] 1 Kocherization and primary repair Not described CBD exploration 23 0 (0%)
Avgerinos et al. 2009 [19] 15 Primary repair Not described Choledocho-duodenostomy 42 3 (20%)
Omental patch  
Pyloric exclusion  
Gastro-enterostomy  
Morgan et al. 2009 [32] 10 Primary repair gastrojejunostomy Drain placement   Not available 1 (10%)
Dubecz et al. 2012 [33] 4 Primary repair Not described Hepatico-jejunostomy 23 0 (0%)
T-tube   
Ercan et al. 2012 [21] 13 Primary repair Percutaneous abscess drainage Cholecystectomy 10.2 6 (46.2%)
Pyloric exclusion Open abscess drainage CBD exploration
Gastro-enterostomy   T-tube
Caliskan et al. 2013 [34] 9 Primary repair Not described CBD exploration 22.6 4 (44.4%)
Duodenostomy   T-tube
Pyloric exclusion, gastro-jejunostomy   Pancreatico-duodenectomy