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Table 1 Levels of evidence and grade of recommendations

From: Management of hemodynamically unstable pelvic trauma: results of the first Italian consensus conference (cooperative guidelines of the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology -Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology- and the World Society of Emergency Surgery)

Levels of evidence
I RCTs and/or systematic review or metanalysis of RCTs
II A single well designed RCT
III Cohort studies with concurrent or historical controls or their metanalysis
IV Case control studies or their metanalysis
V Case series without controls
VI Expert opinion, guidelines, documents coming from consensus conference
Grade of recommendations
A Highly recommended. From good quality level, even if not level I-II
B Not always recommended but must be taken in consideration
C Substantial uncertainty in favour or against
D Not recommended
E Highly not recommended