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Table 4 Comparisons between patients with and without operations for blunt high-grade liver or spleen injuries

From: Non-operative management attempted for selective high grade blunt hepatosplenic trauma is a feasible strategy

  Non-operative Operative P
(s-NOM) (f-NOM + Immediate OP)  
Number of patients (n) 116 34 -
Gender (male) 69 (59.5%) 24 (70.6%) 0.24
Age (years) 32.34 ± 16.21 30.76 ± 16.89 0.62
SBP (mmHg) 119.44 ± 29.37 106.76 ± 28.06 0.02
HR (beats/min) 98.13 ± 20.13 103.88 ± 25.64 0.23
RR (breaths/min) 20.03 ± 3.59 21.62 ± 6.09 0.15
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.11 ± 2.27 10.15 ± 2.89 <0.001
Endotracheal intubation (%) 11 (9.5%) 7 (20.6%) 0.12
Tube thoracostomy (%) 16 (13.8%) 12 (35.3%) 0.005
CT extravasation (%) 29 (25.0%) 17 (50.0%) 0.005
Large hemoperiotneum (%) 25 (21.6%) 22 (64.7%) <0.001
Alcohol (%) 79 (68.1%) 30 (88.2%) 0.02
GCS 13.88 ± 2.55 12.88 ± 3.72 0.15
ISS 19.36 ± 10.24 26.58 ± 11.13 0.001
Mechanism:    0.41
   Motorcycle 79 (68%) 22 (65%)  
   Motor vehicle 14 (12%) 7 (21%)  
   Others 23 (10%) 5 (15%)  
Emergency room BT (U) 1.43 ± 2.05 4.65 ± 4.94 0.001
Hospitalization BT (U) 2.01 ± 4.15 11.06 ± 11.70 <0.001
BT requirement (%) 67 (57.8%) 32 (94.1%) <0.001
Hospitalization (days) 13.22 ± 9.28 21.74 ± 15.67 0.004
ICU LOS (days) 4.19 ± 3.60 9.26 ± 9.35 0.004
Patients with associated injury (%) 91 (78.4%) 28 (82.4%) 0.62
Patients with complication(s) (%) 8 (6.8%) 6 (17.6%) 0.27
Mortality (%) 4 (3.4%) 6 (17.6%) 0.01
  1. s-NOM: Successful non-operative management; f-NOM: Failed non-operative management; OP: Operation; SBP: Systolic blood pressure; CT: Computed tomography; GCS: Gasglow coma scale; ISS: Injury severity score; BT: Blood transfusion; ICU: Intensive care unit; LOS: Length of stay.