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Table 2 Comparison of H-mediated VLC for AC to VLC without the use of H for AC (control group)

From: The HAC trial (harmonic for acute cholecystitis): a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing the use of harmonic scalpel to monopolar diathermy for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cases of acute cholecystitis

  VLC with H VLC with MD p
  (Study group-21 pts) (Control group–21 pts)  
Sex (M/F) 11/10 (52%) 10/11 (47%) ns*
Mean age 71.2 ± 7.1 71.6 +/−6.2 ns
BMI 26.6 ± 2.1 28.1 ± 2.31 ns
Apache II score 10.1 ± 1.9 11.0 ± 2.3 ns
Time between admission and surgery (hours) 69.4 ± 6.1 68.7 ± 7.2 ns§
Mean operating time (minutes) 101.3 ± 10,1 106.4 ± 11.3 ns§
Mean intra-operative blood loss (cc) 91.1 ± 11.9 166.6 cc ± 19.2 < 0.05§
Conversion rate 1/21 (4.7%) 7/21 (33%) < 0.05
Morbidity rate (5/21)23.8% (4/21)19.0% Ns*
Post-operative morbidity 1/21 (4.7%) 1/21 (4.7%) ns
Conservative treatment of 1 biliary leak Wound infection in 1 converted patient
Non-surgical morbidity 4/21 (19%) 3/21 (14%) ns
2 pneumonia 1 pneumonia
1 UTI 1 prolonged ileus
1 prolonged ileus 1 atrial fibrillation
Patients with RBC transfusions 2/21 (9.5%) 1/21 (4.7%) ns
Mortality 0 0 n.a.
Post-operative hospitalization (mean) 5.2 ± 0.9 5.4 ± 1.1 ns§
Mean follow-up period (months) 14.2 ± 0.6 16.4 ± 0.8 ns
Late morbidity/mortality (surgery-related) 0% 0% n.a.
  1. Data presented as mean (SD) or number of patients (%). * = chi-square test,  = Fisher exact test,  = independent samples T test, § = Mann–Whitney test.