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Table 4 Pathological classification of acute cholecystitis in the H and MD treatment groups (according to definitions of the Tokyo Guidelines)

From: The HAC trial (harmonic for acute cholecystitis): a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing the use of harmonic scalpel to monopolar diathermy for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cases of acute cholecystitis


H-mediated VLC

MD-mediated VLC



(21 patients)

(21 patients)


Edematous cholecystitis: first stage

6 (28.5%)

5 (23.8%)


Necrotizing cholecystitis: second stage

13 (61.9%)

15 (71.4%)


Suppurative cholecystitis: third stage

2 (9.5%)

1 (4.7%)


  1. *chi-square test.