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Table 6 The recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis [30]

From: Focus on the prophylaxis, epidemiology and therapy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections and a position paper on associated risk factors: the perspective of an Italian group of surgeons

Surgical category Routine antibiotic prophylaxis Penicillin or cephalosporin allergy
Cardiac Cefazolin plus vancomycin (device only) Vancomycin or
Clindamycin plus gentamicin
Thoracic Cefazolin Vancomycin or
Clindamycin
Colorectal Cefazolin plus metronidazole Clindamycin plus gentamicin
Otorlaryngology Cefazolin alone or plus metronidazole Clindamycin alone or plus ciprofloxacin
General surgery Cefazolin Clindamycin alone or plus gentamicin
Hepatobiliary (complicated) Cefazolin Vancomycin plus tobramycin
Neurosurgery Cefazolin plus vancomycin (device only) Vancomycin
Orthopedic Cefazolin plus vancomycin (artroplasties only) Vancomycin or
Clindamycin
Obstetric/gynecologic Cefazolin Clindamycin
Vascular Cefazolin plus vancomycin (syntetic graft only) Vancomycin
Plastics, Reconstructive & Hand Surgery Cefazolin Clindamycin
Urology Cefazolin Ciprofloxacin alone or plus vancomycin