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Table 5 Classification of complications that occurred within 30 days from surgery according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and their treatment

From: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis: a retrospective study assessing risk factors for conversion and complications

Clavien-Dindo classification LC (n = 289) Conversion (n = 84) Total (n = 373) Treatment
Grade I-II 24 (8.3%) 15 (17.9%) 39 (10.5%)  
Infections     Antimicrobial medication
 Pneumonia 8 4 12  
 Superficial SSI 4 2 6a  
 Urinary tract infection 1   1  
 Other infection 1 2 3  
Arrhythmias 4   4 Antiarrhythmic medication
High blood pressure   2 2 Blood pressure medication
Perioperative MI 2   2 Medication
Respiratory insufficiency 1 1 2 Medication
Congestion 1 1 2 Medication
Urinary retention   1 1 Catheterisation
Postoperative delirium 1   1 Medication
Nausea   1 1 Antiemetic medication
Perihepatic hematoma   1 1 Follow-up
Wound hematoma 1   1 Change of dressings
Grade III a-b 13 (4.5%) 7 (8.3%) 20 (5.4%)  
Common bile duct stone 5   5 ERCP
Surgical site effusion 4   4 Drainage
Bile leak   3 3a ERCP, stenting
Deep SSI; abscess 2 1 3 Drainage
Wound dehiscence   2 2 Re-suturation
Bleeding from urinary catheter 1   1 Bladder washout
Intra-abdominal bleeding 1   1 Laparotomy
Pneumonia; pleural effusion   1 1 Thoracocentesis
Grade IV a-b 2 (0.7%) 1 (1.2%) 3 (0.8%)  
 Respiratory failure 2 1 3 Intubation, CPAP
Grade V 3 (1.0%) 2 (2.4%) 5 (1.3%)  
Sepsis 1   1  
Pneumonia   1 1  
Heart failure 1   1  
Anoxic brain injury during induction of anaesthesia   1 1  
Renal failure 1   1  
Total 42 (14.5%) 25 (29.8%) 67 (18.0%)  
  1. The most serious complication was classified in patients who experienced multiple complications LC Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, SSI Surgical site infection, ERCP Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, CPAP Continuous positive airway pressure, MI Myocardial infarction
  2. aThe numbers of superficial SSIs and bile leaks are reported lower here than in the text (seven respectively four), since only the most serious complication in patients with multiple complications was categorised in this table. The most serious complication in the fourth patient with a bile leak was a wound dehiscence (Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb)