Skip to main content

Table 3 Comparison of clinical outcomes and total cost between three time periods, based on the presence of an ACS service

From: Acute care surgery: a means for providing cost-effective, quality care for gallstone pancreatitis

  Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 p value
Number, n 139 241 55
Index OR, n (%) 22 (16) 120 (50) 42 (76) <0.001
Elective OR, n (%) 85 (61) 67 (28) 6 (11) <0.001
Inpatient ERCP, n (%) 61 (44) 87 (36) 16 (29) 0.11
ER to OR, d, mean (SD) 95 (194) 32 (66) 23 (107) <0.001
OR duration, minutes 65 (32) 68 (29) 63 (34) 0.44
Open, n (%) 6 (4) 9 (4) 0 (0)
Postoperative stay, d, mean (SD) 1.5 (1.8) 1.4 (5.7) 1.1 (1.9) 0.87
Total LOS on index admission, days, mean (SD) 5 (3) 6 (9) 5 (3) 0.10
More than one admission for GSP, n (%) 47 (34) 30 (12) 4 (7) <0.001
More than one ER visit for GSP, n (%) 58 (42) 32 (13) 9 (16) <0.001
Time of index OR
 Mon–Fri (7 a.m.–5 p.m.) 10 (46) 73 (61) 26 (62) 0.675
 Mon–Fri (5 p.m.–Midnight) 2 (9) 9 (8) 2 (5)  
 Mon–Fri (Midnight–7 a.m.) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
 Weekend 10 (46) 38 (32) 14 (33)  
Total cost (2011 dollars), mean (SD) $9255 (324) $9307 (648) $8093 (505) <0.001
  1. Period 1: 2008–2010 (no ACS at either site)
  2. Period 2: 2010–2014 (ACS at site A)
  3. Period 3: 2014–2015 (ACS at both sites)
  4. LOS Length of stay, ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, ER emergency room, OR operating room