Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographics and clinical data according to the location of the esophageal injury

From: Non-iatrogenic esophageal injury: a retrospective analysis from the National Trauma Data Bank

  Total Thoracic Cervical  
(n = 944) (n = 613) (n = 331) p
Demographics
 Age (years), median (IQR) 35 (24–52) 35 (24–53) 36 (25–49) 0.885
 Age >50 year 259 (27.4) 180 (29.4) 79 (23.9) 0.071
 Gender, male 731 (77.6) 469 (76.8) 262 (79.2) 0.4
 Race/ethnicity
  White 534 (56.6) 342 (55.8) 192 (58) 0.512
  Black 240 (25.4) 148 (24.1) 92 (27.8) 0.219
 Mechanism     <0.001
  Blunt 335 (35.5) 241 (39.3) 94 (28.4)  
  Penetrating 478 (50.6) 278 (45.4) 200 (60.4)  
  GSW 337 (35.7) 210 (34.3) 127 (38.4) 0.208
  SW 141 (14.9) 68 (11.1) 73 (22.1) <0.001
  MVC 179 (19) 133 (21.7) 46 (13.9) 0.004
  AVP 12 (1.3) 10 (1.6) 2 (0.6) 0.179
  Fall 73 (7.7) 51 (8.3) 22 (6.6) 0.358
  MCC 26 (2.8) 18 (2.9) 8 (2.4) 0.642
  Assault 39 (4.1) 26 (4.2) 13 (3.9) 0.817
Comorbidities
 Current smoker 141 (14.9) 72 (11.7) 69 (20.8) <0.001
 Chronic renal failure 4 (0.4) 2 (0.3) 2 (0.6) 0.53
 Diabetes mellitus 51 (5.4) 34 (5.5) 17 (5.1) 0.79
 Myocardial infarction 6 (0.6) 6 (1) 0 (0) 0.096
 Hypertension 149 (15.8) 96 (15.7) 53 (16) 0.888
 Obesity 48 (5.1) 25 (4.1) 23 (6.9) 0.055
 Respiratory disease 62 (6.6) 32 (5.2) 30 (9.1) 0.023
 Cirrhosis 2 (0.2) 2 (0.3) 0 (0) 0.544
ED vitals
 SBP <90 mmHg 89 (9.4) 63 (10.3) 26 (7.9) 0.224
 HR (bpm), median (IQR) 97 (80–112) 97 (80–114) 96 (80–109) 0.258
 GCS score <9 218 (23.1) 139 (22.7) 79 (23.9) 0.678
Injury description
 ISS, median (IQR) 24 (16–33) 24 (16–34) 21 (16–29) 0.181
 ISS >15 761 (80.6) 495 (80.8) 266 (80.4) 0.886
 Associated injuries (AIS ≥3)
  Head 270 (28.6) 167 (27.2) 103 (31.1) 0.209
  Chest 860 (91.1) 559 (91.2) 301 (90.9) 0.896
  Abdomen 161 (17.1) 132 (21.5) 29 (8.8) <0.001
  Extremities 119 (12.6) 86 (14) 33 (10) 0.073
 Isolated esophageal injury 218 (23.1) 133 (21.7) 85 (25.7) 0.166
 Esophageal OIS     0.103
  OIS I–II 410 (43.4) 280 (45.7) 130 (39.3)  
  OIS III 466 (49.4) 287 (46.8) 179 (54.1)  
  OIS IV–V 68 (7.2) 46 (7.5) 22 (6.6)  
Procedures
 Tracheostomy 199 (21.1) 113 (18.4) 86 (26) 0.007
 Trachea repair 103 (10.9) 45 (7.3) 58 (17.5) <0.001
 Surgical treatment 345 (36.5) 208 (33.9) 137 (41.4) 0.023
 Early treatment (≤24 h) 275 (29.1) 163 (26.6) 112 (33.8) 0.019
  1. Values are presented as median (IQR) and n (%)
  2. GSW gunshot wound, SW stab wound, MVC motor vehicle collision, AVP auto versus pedestrian, MCC motorcycle collision, SBP systolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ISS Injury Severity Score, AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale, OIS Organ Injury Scale, IQR interquartile range