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Table 5 Implementation of protocols, monitoring systems and ASPs interventions in surgical departments related to working setting and team components

From: The Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery: defining a model for antimicrobial stewardship—results from an international cross-sectional survey

Variables PAP protocol implemented n. (%), p TIS protocol implemented n. (%), p Monitoring system of used antimicrobials n. (%), p Resistance data systematic reports n. (%), p ASP implemented
n. (%), p
Structural intervention n. (%), p
Number of bed
 Less than 100, n = 6 5 (83.3) 1.00a 4 (66.7) 0.29a 4 (66.7) 0.30a 4 (66.7) 0.29a 3 (50.0) 0.58a 3 (50.0) 0.10a
 101–500, n = 38 37 (97.4) 1.00a 32 (84.2) 0.57 29 (76.3) 0.80 30 (78.9) 1.00 32 (84.2) 0.75 22 (57.9) <0.05a
 501–1000, n = 67 62 (92.5) 0.08a 53 (79.1) 0.49 53 (79.1) 0.62 56 (83.6) 0.87 56 (83.6) 0.75 58 (86.6) <0.05a
 More than 1000, n = 47 47 (100.0) 0.18a 40 (85.1) 0.71 42 (89.4) 0.16 39 (83.0) 1.00 39 (83.0) 1.00 41 (87.2) 0.16
Hospital setting
 Urban, n = 144 140 (97.2) 0.09 118 (81.9) 1.00a 119 (82.6) 0.29a 122 (84.7) <0.05a 120 (83.3) 0.40a 97 (67.4) 0.17a
 Suburban and rural, n = 14 12 (85.7) 0.09 12 (85.7) 1.00a 11 (78.6) 0.29a 9 (64.3) <0.05a 10 (71.4) 0.40a 9 (64.3) 0.17a
Type of hospital
 University hospital, n = 114 110 (96.5) 0.67a 92 (80.7) 0.55 94 (82.5) 0.84 98 (86.0) 0.08 92 (80.7) 0.84 95 (83.3) <0.05
 Community teaching hospital, n = 30 29 (96.7) 1.00a 27 (90.0) 0.33 27 (90.0) 0.60 24 (80.0) 0.92 26 (86.7) 0.77a 22 (73.3) 0.54
 Community hospital, n = 9 8 (88.9) 0.30a 8 (88.9) 1.00a 7 (77.8) 0.67a 5 (55.6) 0.05a 9 (100.0) 1.00a 3 (33.3) <0.05a
 Other, n = 5 5 (100.0) 1.00a 3 (60.0) 0.21a 3 (60.0) <0.05a 4 (80.0) 0.21a 4 (80.0) 0.52a 4 (80.0) 1.00a
Components of the team
 Epidemiologist, n = 64 62 (96.9) 1.00a 53 (82.8) 1.00 52 (81.3) 1.00 59 (92.2) <0.05 52 (81.3) 1.00 53 (82.8) 0.46
 Infection control specialist, n = 106 103 (97.2) 0.40a 90 (84.9) 0.31 91 (85.8) 0.08 89 (84.0) 0.57 89 (84.0) 1.00 82 (77.4) 0.79
 Hospital administrator, n = 73 71 (97.3) 0.69a 65 (89.0) 0.06 61 (83.6) 0.71 61 (83.6) 0.86 63 (86.3) 0.29 59 (80.8) 0.49
 Hospital pharmacologist, n = 95 94 (98.9) <0.05a 80 (84.2) 0.57 80 (84.2) 0.42 82 (86.3) 0.16 83 (87.4) 0.29 79 (83.2) 0.08
 Hospital pharmacist, n = 8 7 (87.5) 0.27a 6 (75.0) 0.43a 7 (87.5) 0.55a 5 (62.5) 0.15a 7 (87.5) 0.36a 3 (37.5) <0.05a
 Infectious diseases specialist, n = 125 120 (96.0) 1.00a 100 (80.0) v0.23 104 (83.2) 0.47 103 (82.4) 1.00 107 (85.6) 0.15a 95 (76.0) 0.50
 Intensivist, n = 76 74 (97.4) 0.68a 65 (85.5) 0.41 66 (86.8) 0.16 63 (82.9) 1.00 66 (86.8) 0.80 60 (78.9) 1.00
 Microbiologist, n = 119 119 (100.0) 0.64a 98 (82.4) 1.00 96 (80.7) 0.75 100 (84.0) 0.44 98 (82.4) 0.82 91 (76.5) 0.46
 Surgeon, n = 92 88 (95.7) 1.00a 80 (87.0) 0.11 77 (83.7) 0.56 77 (83.7) 0.73 76 (82.6) 0.70 70 (76.1) 0.61
 Other, n = 11 11 (100.0) 1.00a 9 (81.8) 1.00a 11 (100.0) 0.22a 10 (90.9) 0.69a 10 (90.9) 1.00a 8 (72.7) 0.70a
  1. All p values were calculated using two-sided chi-square test unless otherwise noted
  2. PAP pre-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis, TIS therapy for infections in surgery, ASP antimicrobial stewardship program
  3. aCalculated using two-sided Fisher’s exact test. ASP antimicrobial stewardship program