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Table 1 Description of patients’ characteristics in appendicitis and non-appendicitis groups

From: Developing and validating of Ramathibodi Appendicitis Score (RAMA-AS) for diagnosis of appendicitis in suspected appendicitis patients

Characteristics Non-appendicitis
n = 155
Appendicitis
n = 241
OR (95% CI) p value
Demographic
 Age (year), mean (SD) 33.8 (11.9) 37.9 (15.9)   < 0.001
Age group
  < 40 99 (63.9) 140 (58.1) 1 0.251
  ≥ 40 56 (36.1) 101 (41.9) 1.3(0.8–1.9)  
Sex, number, (%)
 Male 39 (25.2) 93 (38.6) 1.9(1.2–2.9) < 0.001
 Female 116 (74.8) 148 (61.4) 1  
BMI, mean (SD) 22.4 (3.9) 22.95 (4.7)   0.230
Symptoms
First location of pain
 Epigastrium 40 (25.8) 102 (42.3) 2.2(1.4–3.4) < 0.001
 Periumbilical 24 (15.5) 31 (12.9) 1.1(0.6–1.9)  
 Other 91 (58.7) 108 (44.8) 1  
Type of pain
 Dull aching, constant 49 (31.6) 82 (34.0) 1.1(0.7–1.7) 0.620
 Colicky 106 (68.4) 159 (65.9) 1  
Migration of pain
 Absence 108 (69.7) 111 (46.1) 1 < 0.001
 Presence 47 (30.3) 130 (53.9) 2.7(1.8–4.1)  
Onset
 Insidious 120 (77.4) 146 (60.6) 1 < 0.001
 Sudden 35 (22.6) 95 (39.4) 2.2(1.4–3.5)  
Progression of pain
 Yes 113 (72.9) 223 (92.5) 4.6(2.5–8.4)  
 No 42 (27.1) 18 (7.5) 1 < 0.001
Right lower quadrant pain at presentation
 Yes 140 (90.3) 239 (99.2) 12.8(2.9–56.8)  
 No 15 (9.7) 2 (0.8) 1 < 0.001
Time of pain before presentation (hours)
  ≤ 48 126 (81.3) 204 (84.7) 1.3(0.7–2.2) 0.382
  > 48 29 (18.7) 37 (15.4) 1  
Time of right lower quadrant pain before presentation (hours)
  ≤ 12 67 (43.2) 107 (44.4) 1.1(0.7–1.6) 0.820
  > 12 88 (56.8) 134 (55.6) 1  
Nausea or vomiting
 Yes 64 (41.3) 141 (58.5) 2.0(1.3–3.0)  
 No 91 (58.7) 100 (41.5) 1 < 0.001
Aggravation of pain by cough or movement
 Yes 88 (56.8) 199 (82.6) 3.6(2.3–5.7)  
 No 67 (43.2) 42 (17.4) 1 < 0.001
Anorexia
 Yes 118 (76.1) 164 (68.1) 0.7(0.4–1.1) 0.083
 No 37 (23.9) 77 (31.9) 1  
Fever
 Yes 135 (87.1) 154 (63.9) 0.3(0.2–0.5) < 0.001
 No 20 (12.9) 87 (36.1)   
Bowel sound
 Increase 20 (12.9) 37 (15.4) 1.4(0.8–2.5) 0.044
 Decrease 16 (10.3) 45 (18.7) 2.1(1 .1–3.9)  
 Normal 119 (76.8) 159 (65.9) 1  
Body temperature (°C)
  < 37.8 146 (94.2) 176 (73.0) 1 < 0.001
  ≥ 37.8 9 (5.8) 65 (26.9) 5.9 (2.8–12.4)  
Tenderness at right lower quadrant
 Yes 137 (88.4) 240 (99.6) 31.5 (4.2–238.8) < 0.001
 No 18 (11.6) 1 (0.4) 1  
Rebound tenderness
 Yes 37 (23.9) 155 (64.3) 5.8(3.7–9.1) < 0.001
 No 118 (76.1) 86 (35.7) 1  
Guarding
 Yes 26 (16.8) 82 (34.0) 2.6(1.6–4.2) < 0.001
 No 129 (83.2) 159 (65.9) 1  
Laboratory results
WBC (cell/mm3)
  ≤ 10,000 55 (35.5) 26 (10.8) 1 < 0.001
  > 10,000 cell/mm3 100 (64.5) 215 (89.2) 4.6(2.7–7.7)  
Neutrophil (%)
  ≤ 75% 80 (51.6) 54 (22.4) 1 < 0.001
  > 75% 75 (48.4) 187 (77.6) 3.7(2.4–5.8)