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Table 3 Principal risk factors for iatrogenic colonoscopy perforations (ICP)

From: 2017 WSES guidelines for the management of iatrogenic colonoscopy perforation

Risk factors References
Increasing age (> 65 years) [18, 23, 26, 27, 36]
Female gender [18, 28, 29, 36]
Low BMI [28, 29]
Low albumin level [20, 23, 26, 28]
Presence of comorbidities [18, 36]
Crohn’s disease and diverticulosis [16, 18, 20, 23, 26, 28]
Admission in ICU [20, 23, 26, 28]
Endoscopist’s experience [18, 29, 31,32,33]
Non-gastroenterologist endoscopists [31, 33]
Low volume centers [31, 33]
Previous abdominal surgery [16, 36]
Colonic obstruction [16, 18]
Bevacizumab therapy [44, 46, 47]
Therapeutic vs. diagnostic procedure [5, 10, 37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 49]
Colonoscopy vs. sigmoidoscopy [5, 29, 36]
General anesthesia [34, 35]