Skip to main content

Table 4 Main etiologies of iatrogenic colonoscopy perforation (ICP)

From: 2017 WSES guidelines for the management of iatrogenic colonoscopy perforation

Type of injury  
 • Direct mechanical trauma  
 • Barotrauma  
 • Thermal/electrical injury  
Endoscopic therapeutic procedures at risk for ICP  
 • Colorectal stenting  
 • Polypectomy  
 • Colonic dilation  
 • Argon plasma coagulation (APC)  
 • Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)  
 • Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)