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Table 2 Grading of the conclusions and recommendations according to the level of evidence and strength of recommendation

From: Bologna guidelines for diagnosis and management of adhesive small bowel obstruction (ASBO): 2017 update of the evidence-based guidelines from the world society of emergency surgery ASBO working group

Level Conclusion based on
 A Systematic review (A1) or at least 2 independent studies with evidence level A2 (“there is evidence that…”)
 B One study with evidence level A2 or at least 2 independent studies with evidence level B (“it is likely that…”)
 C One study with evidence level B or level C (“there are indications that…”)
 D Expert opinion (“the working group recommends…”)
Level Recommendation
 I Strong recommendation
 II Weak recommendation (suggestion)