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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study patients

From: Prediction of arterial extravasation in pelvic fracture patients with stable hemodynamics using coagulation biomarkers

Variables Extravasation (+)
n = 35
Extravasation (−)
n = 25
p value
Age, yearsa 73 (61–82) 63 (42–70) 0.097
Gender (male), n (%)b 18 (51.4) 20 (80.0) 0.031
Use of anticoagulation, antiplatelet drugs, n (%) 5 (14.3) 0 (0.0) 0.048
Trauma mechanism, n (%)b 0.105
 Motor vehicle 27 (77.1) 12 (48.0)
 Fall 7 (20.0) 10 (40.0)
 Sport 0 (0.0) 1 (4.0)
 Others 1 (2.9) 2 (8.0)
Vital signs at ED
 GCSa 14 (13–15) 15 (14–15) 0.033
 sBP, mmHga 124 (109–133) 130 (112–161) 0.205
 HR, bpma 81 (71–94) 76 (68–88) 0.304
 RR, bpma 21 (17–24) 18 (14–20) 0.270
Blood Test
 Hemoglobin level, g/dLa 11.7 (10.2–13.5) 12.9 (11.8–14.3) 0.078
 Lactate level, mmol/La 2.25 (1.58–2.86) 2.02 (1.40–2.70) 0.486
 FDP, μg/mLa 242 (145–355) 96 (58–153) < 0.001
 D-dimer, μg/mLa 81 (41–140) 39 (21–75) 0.006
 Fibrinogen, mg/dLa 225 (167–295) 229 (198–266) 0.931
 PT–INRa 1.09 (1.05–1.24) 1.02 (0.98–1.08) 0.003
 Ratio of FDP to fibrinogena 1.06 (0.85–2.01) 0.46 (0.25–0.74) < 0.001
AIS for each region
 Head (n = 26)a 3 (3–4) 3 (2–4) 0.024
 Chest (n = 25)a 3 (3–4) 3 (3–4) 0.023
 Abdomen (n = 12)a 3 (2–4) 3 (3–4) 0.540
 Extremities and the pelvis (n = 60)a 4 (4–5) 3 (3–4) < 0.001
ISSa 32 (25–44) 14 (9–27) < 0.001
Patterns of pelvic fractureb
Young and Burgess    0.021
 LC1, n (%) 0 (0.0) 4 (16.0)
 LC2, n (%) 12 (34.3) 9 (36.0)
 LC3, n (%) 16 (45.7) 4 (16.0)
 APC1, n (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 APC2, n (%) 1 (2.9) 0 (0.0)
 APC3, n (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 VS, n (%) 6 (17.1) 8 (32.0)
WSES classification    0.011
 1, n (%) 0 (0.0) 4 (16.0)
 2, n (%) 29 (82.9) 13 (52.0)
 3, n (%) 6 (17.1) 8 (32.0)
Diagnostic procedure
 Angiography for the pelvis, n (%)b 33 (94.3) 7 (28.0) < 0.001
Treatment for pelvic fracture
 TAE, n (%)b 33 (94.3) 4 (16.0) < 0.001
 External fixation, n (%)b 2 (6.1) 1 (5.0) 1.000
 Preperitoneal packing, n (%)b 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) N.A
 Amount of blood transfusion within 24 h, unitsa 4 (0–14) 0 (0–0) 0.002
Time course
 Door to CT time, min 22 (17–32) 23 (19–32) 0.722
 Door to angiography time, min 92 (81–116) 71 (53–92) 0.059
Mortality
 24-h mortality, n (%)b 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1.000
 30-day mortality, n (%)b 4 (11.4) 0 (0.0) 0.216
  1. aMann–Whitney U test
  2. bχ2 test or Fisher’s exact test
  3. ED emergency department, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, sBP systolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, RR respiratory rate, FDP fibrin degradation products, PT–INR prothrombin time–international normalized ratio, WSES World Society of Emergency Surgery, AIS abbreviated injury scale, TAE transcatheter arterial embolization, ISS injury severity score, N.A not applicable