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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) spleen trauma classification: a useful tool in the management of splenic trauma

Characteristics N = 124 Mean ± SD Median (range)
Age (years) 50.23 ± 18.36
48.68
(17.00–91.00)
M/F 91/33
(73.4%/26.6%)
Trauma mechanism of injury
 -Invested pedestrian 11 (8.9%)
 -Car 38 (30.6%)
 -Motorbike 39 (31.5%)
 -Bike 5 (4.0%)
 -Precipitation 17 (13.7%)
 -Others 14 (11.3%)
ISS 27.93 ± 13.02
27.00
(5.00–75.00)
HR at arrival in ED (bpm) 90.27 ± 20.27
88.00
(48.00–145.00)
SBP at arrival in ED (mmHg) 113.91 ± 25.00
117.00
(53.00–170.00)
pH 7.31 ± 0.12
7.33
(6.80–7.47)
BE (mmol/L) − 3.23 ± 3.43
− 2.8
(−14.50 to + 2.10)
Lac 3.20 ± 1.87
2.92
(0.80–9.24)
Hb (g/dL) 12.53 ± 2.53
12.95
(3.30–16.80)
INR (s) 1.37 ± 0.72
1.16
(0.66–5.93)
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 231.66 ± 122.74
210.00
(26.00–1120.00)
Platelets (× 103/mL) 218.92 ± 72.27
220.00
(55.00–460.00)
Number of RBC units transfused in ED 0.48 ± 0.96
0.00
(0.00–4.00)
Positive eco-fast 62 (50.0%)
Negative eco-fast negativa 44 (35.5%)
N.A. 18 (14.2%)
AAST 1 3 (3.2%)
AAST 2 48 (38.7%)
AAST 3 34 (27.4%)
AAST 4 30 (24.2%)
AAST 5 5 (4.0%)
N.A. 3 (2.4%)
AAST > 3 35 (28.2%)
AAST ≤ 3 87 (70.2%)
WSES I 44 (35.5%)
WSES II 27 (21.8%)
WSES III 18 (14.5%)
WSES IV 30 (24.2%)
N.A. 5 (4.0%)
WSES IV 30 (24.2%)
WSES < IV 89 (71.8%)
Presence of CB 33 (26.6%)
Absence of CB 74 (59.7%)
N.A. 17 (13.7%)
Presence of PSA/FAV 4 (3.2%)
Absence of PSA/FAV 101 (81.5%)
N.A. 19 (15.3%)
Number of quadrants with hemoperitoneum 1.59 ± 1.45
1.00 (0.00–5.00)
Associated abdominal and pelvic lesions 58 (46.8%)
No associated abdominal and pelvic lesions 66 (53.2%)
Associated brain injuries 24 (19.4%)
No associated brain injuries 100 (80.6%)
  1. M/F male/female, ISS Injury Severity Score, HR heart rate, N.A. not available, SBP systolic blood pressure, ED emergency department, BE base excess, Lac lactates, Hb hemoglobin, RBC red blood cell, AAST American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, WSES World Society of Emergency Surgery, CB contrast blush, INR International Normalized Ratio