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Table 3 Univariate analysis of risk factors for OM at the arrival of patient at the ED

From: The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) spleen trauma classification: a useful tool in the management of splenic trauma

Variable Mean ± SD Median (range) p value
NOM OM
Age < 55 years 42.3% 57.7% n.s.
Age > 55 years 50.0% 50.0%
Age (years) 50.54 ± 18.17 49.87 ± 18.73 n.s.
49.35 (18.00–91.00) 48.00 (17.00–85.60)
No anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs 48.8% 51.2% n.s.
Anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs 40.0% 60.0%
HR (mean ± SD) 85.95 ± 18.66 95.24 ± 21.07 0.009
Median (range) (bpm) 80.00 (48.00–133.00) 95.00 (55.00–145.00)
HR < 120 bpm 58.7% 41.3% n.s.
HR > 120 bpm 46.8% 53.2%
SBP(mmHg) 120.40 ± 21.35 106.51 ± 26.92 0.002
120.00 (70.00–170.00) 105.00 (53.00–167.00)
SBP > 90 mmHg 60.4% 39.6% 0.001
SBP < 90 mmHg 21.7% 78.3%
Shock index < 1 60.2% 39.8% 0.002
Shock index > 1 26.9% 73.1%
AAST 1 100.0% 0.0% < 0.001
AAST 2 81.3% 18.7%
AAST 3 44.1% 55.9%
AAST 4 26.7% 73.3%
AAST 5 0.0% 100.0%
AAST ≤ 3 66.7% 33.3% < 0.001
AAST > 3 22.9% 77.1%
WSES I 86.4% 13.6% < 0.001
WSES II 44.4% 55.6%
WSES III 44.4% 55.6%
WSES IV 20.0% 80.0%
WSES I-II-III 63.8% 36.2% < 0.001
WSES IV 20.0% 80.0%
ISS 24.38 ± 12.68 32.05 ± 12.27 < 0.001
22.00 (5.00–75.00) 29.00 (9.00–66.00)
ISS < 25 72.0% 28.0% 0.001
ISS > 25 40.9% 59.1%
Lac 3.01 ± 1.90 3.51 ± 1.85 n.s.
2.66 (0.80–9.24) 3.08 (1.30–8.00)
BE (mmol/L) − 3.34 ± 3.82 − 3.06 ± 2.88 n.s.
− 2.80 (− 14.50–2.10) − 2.90 (− 9.50–1.80)
pH 7.32 ± 0.07 7.28 ± 0.16 n.s.
7.34 (7.13–7.43) 7.29 (6.80–7.47)
Hb (g/dL) 13.31 ± 2.33 11.39 ± 2.63 < 0.001
13.60 (5.60–16.80) 11.70 (3.30–16.40)
Hb > 12 g/dL 66.7% 33.3% 0.001
Hb ≤ 12 g/dL 37.9% 62.1%
BE > − 5 mmol/L 57.7% 42.3% n.s.
BE < − 5 mmol/L 66.7% 33.3%
Brain injuries 41.7% 58.3% n.s.
No brain injuries 56.0% 44.0%
Associated abdominal lesions 44.8% 55.2% n.s.
No associated abdominal lesions 60.6% 39.4%
Trauma mechanism of injury    n.s.
 -Invested pedestrian 72.7% 27.3%
 -Car 44.7% 55.3%
 -Motorbike 56.4% 43.6%
 -Bike 60.0% 40.0%
 -Precipitation 52.9% 47.1%
 -Others 50.0% 50.0%
Contrast blush 42.4% 57.6% 0.010
No contrast blush 68.9% 31.1%
Pseudoaneurysm 50.0% 50.0% n.s.
No pseudoaneurysm 61.4% 38.6%
Hemoperitoneum at TC 54.4% 45.6% n.s.
Number of quadrants with hemoperitoneum
 - > 1 42.0% 58.0% < 0.001
 - ≤ 1 69.4% 30.6%
INR (s) 1.12 ± 0.15 1.69 ± 1.11 0.001
1.15 (0.66–1.38) 1.23 (1.04–5.05)
INR > 1.5 s 23.5% 76.5% 0.014
INR < 1.5 s 55.7% 44.3%
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 215.52 ± 53.98 168.23 ± 67.51 0.020
205.00 (156.0–491.00) 173.00 (26.00–260.00)
Fibrinogen ≤ 200 mg/dL 38.1% 61.9% 0.031
Fibrinogen > 200 mg/dL 60.4% 39.6%
PLT/mm3 217.38 ± 49.76 198.29 ± 83.93 n.s.
220.00 (137.00–315.00) 190.00 (156.00–401.00)
Positive eco-fast 33.9% 66.1% < 0.001
Negative eco-fast 72.7% 27.3%
RBC transfusion at the ED 34.6% 65.4% 0.032
No RBC transfusion at the ED 58.2% 41.8%
  1. ISS Injury Severity Score, HR heart rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, ED emergency department, BE base excess, Lac lactates, Hb hemoglobin, RBC red blood cell, AAST American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, WSES World Society of Emergency Surgery, PLT platelet, INR International Normalized Ratio