Skip to main content

Table 5 Differences between operative (OM) and non-operative managed (NOM) patients in the two periods

From: Non-operative management of blunt hepatic and splenic injury: a time-trend and outcome analysis over a period of 17 years

  Early period (2000–2008) Late period (2009–2016)
OM patients
n = 69
NOM patients
n = 303
P OM patients
n = 58
NOM patients
n = 301
P
Male 52 (75.4%) 199 (65.7%) 0.121 40 (69.0%) 206 (68.4%) 0.937
Age (median, SD) 31.8 (17.2) 26.5 (17.9) 0.087 34.5 (17.9) 29.0 (18.5) 0.355
Trauma cause (missing = 2)
 Car collision 16 (23.2%) 85 (28.2%) 0.518 9 (15.5%) 46 (15.3%) 0.322
 Motorcycle collision 15 (21.7%) 31 (10.3%) 6 (10.3%) 35 (11.6%)
 Pedestrian or occupational collision 4 (5.8%) 22 (7.3%) 2 (3.4%) 7 (2.3%)
 Cycling collision 5 (7.2%) 19 (6.3%) 2 (3.4%) 36 (12.0%)
 Winter sports 15 (21.7%) 77 (25.6%) 26 (44.8%) 124 (41.2%)
 Fall from heights 8 (11.6%) 41 (13.6%) 6 (10.3%) 21 (7.0%)
 Trauma in homely environment 4 (5.8%) 16 (5.3%) 7 (12.1%) 20 (6.6%)
 Personal assault 0 (0%) 1 (0.3%) 0 (0%) 2 (0.7%)
 Horse riding collision (and other animals) 2 (2.9%) 9 (3.0%) 0 (0%) 10 (3.3%)
Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission ≤ 8 20 (29%) 56 (18.7%) 0.058 5 (8.9%) 25 (8.5%) 0.923
Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15 67 (97.1%) 271 (89.4%) 0.046 44 (75.9%) 240 (79.7%) 0.507
Injured organ
 Spleen 38 (55.1%) 85 (28.1%) < 0.001 41 (70.7%) 116 (38.5%) < 0.001
 Liver 15 (21.7%) 177 (58.4%) 9 (15.5%) 167 (55.5%)
 Combined liver and spleen injury 16 (23.2%) 41 (13.5%) 8 (13.8%) 18 (6%)
AAST (Moore) Injury Score (missing = 9)
 Spleen
  No spleen injury 15 (24.2%) 177 (58.6%) < 0.001 8 (14%) 167 (55.5%) < 0.001
  I–III 23 (37.1%) 115 (38.1%) 27 (47.4%) 114 (37.9%)
  IV–V 24 (38.7%) 10 (3.3%) 22 (38.6%) 20 (6.6%)
Liver
 No liver injury 36 (58.1%) 84 (27.8%) < 0.001 41 (71.9%) 116 (38.5%) < 0.001
 I–III 14 (22.6%) 183 (60.6%) 10 (17.5%) 154 (51.2%)
 IV–VI 12 (19.4%) 35 (11.6%) 6 (10.5%) 31 (10.3%)
Associated extra-abdominal injuries (AIS ≥ 1)
 Head or neck 35 (50.7%) 138 (45.5%) 0.436 12 (20.7%) 82 (27.2%) 0.299
 Face 10 (14.5%) 42 (13.9%) 0.891 5 (8.6%) 44 (14.6%) 0.223
 Chest 49 (71%) 221 (72.9%) 0.747 35 (60.3%) 158 (52.5%) 0.272
 Extremities or pelvic girdle 44 (63.8%) 159 (52.5%) 0.089 22 (37.9%) 117 (38.9%) 0.893
 External (skin and soft tissue) 57 (82.6%) 234 (77.2%) 0.328 30 (51.7%) 136 (45.2% 0.360
  1. OM operative management, NOM non-operative management, SD standard deviation, ISS Injury Severity Score, AAST American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, AIS Abbreviated Injury Score, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale