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Table 1 Baseline characteristics patients

From: Outcome of trauma-related emergency laparotomies, in an era of far-reaching specialization

  Total (n = 268) Survived (n = 223) Deceased (n = 45) P value
Age in years, mean (± SD) 42.5 (± 30.8) 40.2 (± 17.8) 50.8 (± 24.2) 0.001
Male/female 177/91 152/71 24/21 0.046
ASA classification (missing 9)     0.081
- ASA 1 139 124 15
- ASA 2 83 66 17
- ASA 3 32 28 4
- ASA 4 5 3 2
Psychiatric comorbidities (missing 16) 63 55 8 NS
History of abdominal surgery (missing 10) 18 16 2 NS
History of diabetes (missing 10) 17 12 5 NS
History of cardiac disease (missing 10) 36 27 9 0.054
History of pulmonary disease (missing 10) 26 20 6 NS
Trauma mechanism (missing = 0)     NS
- Fall < 3 m 14 13 1
- Fall > 3 m 22 18 4
- MVA car 74 62 12
- MVA motorcycle 15 13 2
- MVA bike 59 45 14
- MVA pedestrian 8 6 2
- Penetrating trauma 49 43 6
- Gunshot wound 9 9 0
- Crush injury 7 5 2
- Other 11 9 2
Suicide attempt 44 38 6 NS
ISS, mean (± SD) 27.5 (± 14.9) 25.2 (± 13.8) 38.7 (± 15.8) <0.001
AIS regions     
- AIS head 1.07 (± 1.6) 0.9 (± 1.5) 1.8 (± 2.0) 0.006
- AIS face 0.27 (± 0.7) 0.3 (± 0.7) 0.3 (± 0.8) NS
- AIS chest 2.24 (± 1.8) 2.1 (± 1.8) 3.1 (± 1.6) 0.001
- AIS abdomen 2.74 (± 1.5) 2.7 (± 1.5) 3.0 (± 1.8) NS
- AIS extremities 1.55 (± 1.6) 1.4 (± 1.6) 2.1 (± 1.6) 0.015
- AIS external 0.81 (± 0.8) 0.8 (± 0.8) 0.9 (± 1.0) NS
Glasgow Coma Scale, mean (± SD) 10.5 (± 5.3) 12.5 (± 4.1) 4.5 (± 3.6) <0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 108 (± 33) 114 (± 27) 77 (± 40) <0.001
Hemoglobin (mmol/ml) 7.28 (± 1.9) 7.7 (± 1.7) 5.1 (± 1.8) <0.001
pH 7.26 (± 0.17) 7.32 (± 0.12) 7.05 (± 0.19) <0.001
Base deficit 5.8 (± 7.6) 3.7 (± 5.9) 15.4 (± 7.3) <0.001
  1. Baseline characteristics of all patients that have underwent an emergency laparotomy (N=268) divided in patients who survived (N=223) and patients that deceased (N=45). Significant differences are mean age, gender, and severely injured patients as shown by higher ISS and AIS and vital parameters at presentation. NS = not statistically significant (p>0.10)