Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline demographics, perioperative characteristics and unplanned readmission rates of frail vs non-frail patients (by Modified Fried’s Frailty Criteria)

From: Frailty and functional decline after emergency abdominal surgery in the elderly: a prospective cohort study

CharacteristicAll (n = 109)Frail (n = 28)Non-frail (n = 81)P value
Median age (IQR), years74 (69–78)71 (68–77)74 (69–79)0.45
Male gender, n (%)58 (53.2)15 (53.6)43 (53.1)0.97
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Chinese96 (88.1)24 (85.7)72 (88.9)0.12
 Malay8 (7.3)4 (14.3)4 (4.9) 
 Indian5 (4.6)0 (0.0)5 (6.2) 
 Others    
Baseline CCI, n (%)
 CCI ≤ 152 (47.7)8 (28.6)44 (54.3)0.02
 CCI > 157 (52.3)20 (71.4)37 (45.7) 
Baseline MUST score, n (%)
 MUST ≤ 143 (39.4)7 (25.0)36 (44.4)0.07
 MUST > 166 (60.6)21 (75.0)45 (55.6) 
Baseline cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24)35 (32.1)12 (42.9)23 (28.4)0.16
Baseline functionally independent, n (%)101 (92.7)22 (78.6)79 (97.5)0.003
Diagnosis, n (%)
 Appendicitis18 (16.5)1 (3.6)17 (21.0)0.39
 Cholecystitis20 (18.3)5 (17.9)15 (18.5) 
 Perforated viscus16 (14.7)5 (17.9)11 (13.6) 
 Small bowel obstruction22 (20.2)8 (28.6)14 (17.3) 
 Large bowel obstruction10 (9.2)2 (7.1)8 (9.9) 
 Ischemic bowel7 (6.4)3 (10.7)4 (4.9) 
 Complicated herniae14 (12.8)4 (14.3)10 (12.3) 
 Others2 (1.8)0 (0.0)2 (2.5) 
Laparotomy, n (%)68 (62.4)20 (71.4)48 (59.3)0.25
Postoperative morbidity, n (%)38 (34.9)17 (60.7)21 (25.9)0.001
Major postoperative morbidity (Clavien Dindo score ≥ 3), n (%)7 (6.4)3 (10.7)4 (4.9)0.37
Postoperative intensive care unit admission, n (%)17 (15.6)7 (25.0)10 (12.3)0.11
Reoperation, n (%)7 (6.4)1 (3.6)6 (7.4)0.68
Median length of stay (IQR), days12 (8-19)17 (11-25)10 (7-17)0.005
30-day unplanned readmission29 (26.6)11 (39.3)18 (22.2)0.08
1-year unplanned readmission49 (45.0)18 (64.3)31 (38.3)0.02
  1. IQR Interquartile range, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, MUST Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination