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Table 2 Results of meta-analyses assessing influence of surgical timing on outcomes in necrotizing soft tissue infections

From: Time is of the essence when treating necrotizing soft tissue infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mortality analyses
   Subgroup analyses
OutcomeEvents/total patients (n)Result (OR, 95% CI)High-quality studiesa
(OR, 95% CI)
Studies published ≥ 2009b
(OR, 95% CI)
Studies without limitation on affected body region by NSTIc
(OR, 95% CI)
Studies without limitation based on specific microbial types of NSTId
(OR, 95% CI)
Surgery within 6 h after presentation137/5120.43 (0.26–0.70)0.46 (0.27–0.80)0.49 (0.30–0.82)0.44 (0.25–0.75)0.45 (0.25–0.79)
Surgery within 12 h after presentation168/6690.41 (0.27–0.61)0.40 (0.23–0.69)0.43 (0.28–0.67)0.45 (0.29–0.70)0.41 (0.22–0.74)
Surgery within 24 h after presentation271/13720.79 (0.52–1.20)0.63 (0.29–1.34)0.84 (0.52–1.37)0.85 (0.53–1.38)1.11 (0.77–1.60)
Surgery within 3 days after onset symptoms33/1720.40 (0.15–1.08)0.41 (0.13–1.29)0.35 (0.12–1.02)0.46 (0.16–2.42)0.13 (0.01–2.42)
Hospital admission within 3 days after onset symptoms98/3260.49 (0.16–1.44)0.66 (0.15–2.83)0.61 (0.17–2.24)0.41 (0.08–2.13)1.01 (0.37–2.74)
Amputation analyses
 Subgroup analyses
OutcomeEvents/total patients (n)Result
(OR, 95% CI)
High-quality studiesa
(OR, 95% CI)
Studies published ≥ 2009b
(OR, 95% CI)
Studies without limitation on affected body region by NSTIc
(OR, 95% CI)
Studies without limitation based on specific microbial types of NSTId
(OR, 95% CI)
Surgery within 6 h after presentation45/1970.68 (0.34–1.39)0.57 (0.23–1.42)0.65 (0.31–1.38)0.64 (0.30–1.38)0.61 (0.28–1.32)
Surgery within 12 h after presentation26/1380.71 (0.28–1.82)0.54 (0.11–2.54)0.71 (0.25–1.98)0.71 (0.24–2.11)0.55 (0.19–1.54)
Surgery within 24 h after presentation21/1020.63 (0.20–2.05)0.25 (0.04–1.60)0.70 (0.19–2.58)0.41 (0.08–2.26)0.53 (0.14–2.06)
  1. Results in bold are statistically significant results
  2. CI confidence interval, NSTI necrotizing soft tissue infection, OR odds ratio
  3. aExcluding Bair, Balci, Catena, Corona, Ferretti, George, Huang 2008, Kaiser, Kalaivani, Knutson, Lille, Liu, Mittapalli, Ogilvie, Pakula, Palmer, Park, Stephenson, Sudarsky, Tsai 2010, Tsai 2015, Wang, Yu
  4. bExcluding Catena, Huang 2008, Kaiser, Knutson, Lille, Ogilvie, Palmer, Stephenson, Sudarsky, Wang, Yu
  5. cExcluding Balci, Boyer, Corona, Ferretti, Huang 2008, Liu, Palmer, Stephenson, Sugihara, Wang
  6. dExcluding Chao, Huang 2008, Knutson, Lee, Tsai 2010, Tsai 2015