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Table 3 Multivariable logistic regression analysis for in-hospital mortality

From: Association of pre-operative chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury with in-hospital outcomes of emergency colorectal surgery: a cohort study

 Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI)P value
Exposure groups
 (i) CKD(-)AKI(-)1 (reference) 
 (ii) CKD(-)AKI(+)2.54 (1.90–3.40)< 0.001
 (iii) CKD(+)AKI(-)1.29 (0.90–1.85)0.166
 (iv) CKD(+)AKI(+)2.86 (1.54–5.32)0.001
 (v) ESRD2.76 (1.55–4.93)0.001
Covariates
 Age (per 1 year)1.03 (1.02–1.05)< 0.001
 Sex (men vs. women)1.39 (1.00–1.93)0.051
 Type of surgery  
  Surgery for acute pan-peritonitis1 (reference) 
  Colectomy1.67 (1.14–2.45)0.009
  Colostomy2.40 (1.38–4.17)0.002
  Rectal resection1.68 (0.98–2.87)0.057
 Use of laparoscopy (yes vs. no)0.22 (0.07–0.71)0.012
 Indication for surgery  
   Peritonitis or perforation2.69 (0.55–13.13)0.220
   Obstruction4.06 (0.93–17.80)0.063
   Bleeding or diverticulosis1 (reference) 
   Others2.40 (0.51–11.23)0.266
 Presence of colorectal cancer (yes vs. no)0.92 (0.62–1.35)0.671
 Body mass index (per 1 kg/m2)0.94 (0.91–0.98)0.001
 Comorbidities (yes vs. no)  
  Diabetes1.24 (0.96–1.61)0.095
  Heart failure1.66 (0.85–3.24)0.135
  Chronic pulmonary disease1.14 (0.59–2.21)0.699
  Chronic liver disease1.31 (0.71–2.40)0.383
  Cancer (except for colorectal cancer)1.81 (1.32–2.46)< 0.001
 Blood test results at admission  
  White blood cell count (per 1000/μl)1.01 (0.98–1.04)0.478
  Hemoglobin (per 1 g/dl)0.90 (0.85–0.95)< 0.001
  Platelet count (per 10,000/μl)0.98 (0.96–0.99)0.020
  Total protein (per 1 g/dl)0.88 (0.80–0.96)0.005
  Total bilirubin (per 1 mg/dl)0.95 (0.74–1.23)0.700
  C-reactive protein (per 1 mg/dl)1.00 (0.99–1.01)0.588
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, CKD chronic kidney disease, CI confidence interval, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ESRD end-stage renal disease