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Table 1 Case series summary of ECMO in trauma

From: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in trauma patients: a systematic review

Author Study types Year of publish/study Size Gender(M/F) Age(year, range) Causes of trauma Mechanism of trauma TBI ISS GCS Hospital mortalityn (%) Cause of death
Kruit N et al [9] Retrospective study 2019(2011–2017) 52 42/10 33 (18-72) Traffic accident 36
Falling 8
Assault 4
Helicopter crash 1
Speedboat crash 1
Missing data 2
19 (3 died) 35 (6–75) 6 (11.5%) Cerebral herniation 2
Mesenteric ischemia 1
Massive hemorrhage 1
Unknown 2
Fenton SJ et al [10] Retrospective study 2019(2009–2016) 6 4/2 4.8 (3–8) Traffic accident 5
Crush injury 1
Blunt chest trauma 4 36 (27–40) 3 1 (16.7%) Large right-sided ischemic cerebrovascular accident
Lang NW et al [11] Retrospective study 2019(20022016) 18 11/7 29.5 (1-64) Traffic Accident 10
Falling 4
Stab 2
Other 2
Blunt polytrauma 5 34.5 (1650) 6.6 ± 4.8(3–15) 12 (66.6%) MOF, sepsis, hypoxic cerebral edema
Menaker J et al [12] Retrospective study 2018(20152016) 18 15/3 28.5 (24-43) blunt mechanism 12
missing data 6
27 (21–41) 4 (22%) Shock and coagulopathy 3, primary neurologic injury 1
Wu MY et al [13] Retrospective study 2018(2006–2014) 36 31/5 36 (27–49) Traffic accident 24
Falling 5
Burn 3
Stab 1
Electrocution 1
Near-drowning 1
Compressing injury 1
4 (3 died) 29 (19–45) 15 (41.7%) -
Strumwasser A et al [6] Retrospective study 2018(2016–2017) 7 7/0 41 ± 15 ( 23–63 ) Traffic accident 5
Gunshot 2
Blunt polytrauma 5Open trauma 2 0 32.5 ± 14.1 (16–54) 5 (71.4%) Multisystem organ failure and “comfort measures only"
Ull C et al [14] Retrospective study 2017(20082014) 49 44/5 49.9 (16.686.2) 32 (466) 17 (34.7%) -
Kim HS et al [15] Retrospective study 2017(2007–2015) 9 8/1 48.0 (20.5–62.0) Traffic accident 4
Gunshot 1
Crush injury 2
Falling 2
1 (11.1%)
Ahmad SB et al [16] Retrospective study 2017(2006–2015) 39 29/10 Mean 28
Survivors 35 (25–45)
Nonsurvivors 27 ( 22–42)
Traffic accident 26
Falling 3
Gunshot 6
Stab 1
Impalement 1
Near-drowning 1
Crush injury 1
Blunt polytrauma 31
Penetrating trauma 8
11 Mean 29 Survivors 25 (18–32)
Nonsurvivors 41 (26–50)
22 (56%) Cardiorespiratory arrest 10
Brain death 1 Died after withdrawal of care 11
Chen TH et al [17] Retrospective study 2016(20092012) 7 6/1 31 (2149) Traffic Accident 5
Falling 2
Blunt chest trauma 4 36 (2757) 3 (43.8%) Irreversible brain damage with vasodilatory shock; Septic shock with MOF
Bosarge PL et al [18] Retrospective study 2016(2013–2014) 15 15/0 36 (25–47) Severe TBI 2 26.0 (17.0–34.0) 2 (13.3%) Hypoxia
Jacobs JV et al [19] Retrospective study 2015(1998–2014) 85 71/14 28.9 ± 1.1 Blunt chest trauma 14 22 (25.9%)
Guirand DM et al [20] Retrospective study 2014(2001–2009) 26 20/6 33.0 (16–55 ) Blunt trauma 21 29.0 (12.4) 11 (42%)
Bonacchi M et al [21] Retrospective study 2013(2008–2012) 18 12/6 46.3 ± 17.6 (15-69) Traffic Accident 15
Falling 2
Crash 1
Blunt polytrauma 7 53 ± 17 (18–75) 13 (72.2%) ECMO failure 4
septic MOF 2
cerebral death 7
Biderman P et al [22] Retrospective study 2013(2006–2011) 10 6/4 29.8 ± 7.7 (19–42) Traffic accident 6
Falling 2
Bombing 1
pedestrian injury 1
Blunt polytrauma 9
Cardiac perforation 1
7 (1 died) 50.3 ± 10.5(29–57) 3 (30%) Septic 2
Cardiogenic shock 1
Ried M et al [23] Retrospective study 2013(2002–2012) 52 49/3 32 ± 14 (16–72) Traffic accident 38
Blast injury 9
Falling 4
Blunt trauma 1
Blunt chest trauma 40 30 58.9 ± 10.5 11 (21%) Multiorgan failure 9
Fulminant bleeding 1
Cerebral hypoxia and bleeding 1
Cordell-Smith JA et al [24] retrospective study 2006(1992–2002) 28 24/4 27 (18–49) Traffic accident 24
Sporting accidents 2
Extensive crush 2
Blunt polytrauma 18 8 (28.6%) Irreversible cardiogenic failure 4
Sepsis 4
Fortenberry JD et al [25] Retrospective study 2003(1991–2001) 8 NA 12.5 (21 months—29 years)Pediatric 4 (21 months—19 years) Traffic accident 7
Gunshot 1
Blunt polytrauma 7
Penetrating 1
2 2 (25%)Pediatric1, adult 1 Pulmonary fat emboli and necrotic lung tissue 1 Severe pulmonary hypertension 1
Senunas LE et al [26] Retrospective study 1997(1988–1994) 14 4/10 19 (5–47) Traffic accident 14 Orthopaedic trauma (severe pulmonary compromise) - 19 (9-29) 14 6 (42.9% Children 4 Adult 2) Bleeding 5ARF 1
Robba C et al [27] Case report 2017 (2000–2016) 4 4/0 31,58,36,54 Traffic accident 2
Falling 2
Blunt trauma 2 25,41,50,50 15, 6, 15, 3 1 (25%) Malignant intracranial hypertension
Amos T et al [28] Case report 2019 1 1/0 21 Traffic accident Thoracic compartment syndrome 0 3 0
Matsumoto S et al [29] Case report 2019 1 0/1 64 Traffic accident Blunt chest trauma 0 0
Puzio TJ et al [30] Case report 2019 1 1/0 2.5 Dog bite injury Severe head, neck, and facial injuries 1 3 0
Ogawa F et al [31] Case report 2019 1 1/0 32 Traffic accident Blunt chest trauma 0 33 0
Lorini FL et al [32] Case report 2019 1 1/0 21 Hit by rolled rock Blunt chest trauma 0 0
Wang FY et al [33] Case report 2019 1 1/0 47 Compressing Blunt chest trauma 0 0
Moon SH et al [34] Case report 2018 1 0/1 26 Traffic accident Blunt chest trauma 0 0
Chico Carballas JI et al [35] Case report 2018 1 1/0 26 Traffic accident Brain trauma 1 25 4 0
Yuan KC et al [36] Case report 2008 2 2/0 18,38 Traffic crash Blunt chest trauma 1 0
Yoann L et al [37] Case report 2013 1 0/1 37 Horse riding accident Blunt chest trauma with cardiac rupture 0 0
Louro J et al [38] Case report 2018 1 1/0 14 Falling Blunt polytrauma 0 15 0
Tu Y et al [39] Case report 2018 1 1/0 24 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 0 0
Lee N et al [40] Case report 2015 1 1/0 28 Stab Penetrating cardiac trauma 0 0
Stroehle M et al [41] Case report 2017 1 1/0 17 Hit and run over by a railroad engine Blunt polytrauma 1 59 3 0
Park JM et al [42] Case report 2014 1 0/1 40 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 1 7 0
Skarda D et al [43] Case report 2012 3 2/1 17,8,15 Traffic accident 2
Gunshot 1
Blunt polytraum 2
Perforation trauma 1
2 3, 14, 15 0
Yamada T et al [44] Case report 2014 1 1/0 56 Falling Blunt chest trauma 0 8 0
Firstenberg MS et al [45] Case report 2012 1 1/0 27 Traffic accident Blunt chest trauma 1 0
Ballouhey Q et al [46] Case report 2013 1 0/1 32-month Traffic accident Blunt chest trauma 0 0
Campione A et al [47] Case report 2007 1 1/0 14 Go-cart race Blunt chest trauma 0 0
Issa N et al [48] Case report 2011 1 1/0 30 Traffic accident Fractures, splenic injury,cardiorespiratory arrest 0 0
Rosenthal A et al [49] Case report 2009 1 1/0 42 Gunshot Open chest trauma 0 0
Tunney R et al [50] Case report 2018 1 1/0 19 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 0 0
Chauhan A et al [51] Case report 2014 1 0/1 18 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 0 0
Bassi E et al [52] Case report 2011 1 1/0 48 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 1 3 1(100%) extensive brain infarction
Filippini S et al [53] Case report 2013 1 1/0 25 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 0 0
Wen PH et al [54] Case report 2015 1 1/0 19 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 0 8 0
Madershahian N et al [55] Case report 2007 3 2/1 19,48,26 Traffic accident 2
Falling 1
Blunt polytrauma 1 4, 12, 4 0
Lee SK et al [56] Case report 2017 1 1/0 21 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 0 0
Biscotti M et al [57] Case report 2015 2 2/0 18, 20 Traffic accident TBI 2 27, 33 14, 3 0
Lee OJ et al [58] Case report 2019 1 1/0 10 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 0 25 0
Messing JA et al [59] Case report 2014 1 1/0 21 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 1 38 0
Voelckel W et al [60] Case report 1998 2 2/0 29,12 Traffic accident hit by a falling tree Blunt chest trauma 0 0
Yen TS et al [61] Case report 2008 1 1/0 21 Traffic accident TBI 1 - 12 0
Muellenbach RM et al [62] Case report 2012 3 3/0 53,
16,
28
Traffic accident
Falling
Traffic accident
Blunt polytrauma 3 59,
66,
66
4, 3, 6 0
Valette X et al [63] Case report 2011 1 1/0 17 Traffic accident Blunt chest trauma 0 0
Barreda E et al [64] Case report 2007 1 1/0 28 Gunshot Penetrating chest trauma 0 15 0
Hill JD et al [5] Case report 1972 1 1/0 24 Traffic accident Blunt polytrauma 0 0
Total Retrospective study 19case Report 39 1972–2019 548 M 441F 99 adult 34.9 ± 12.3(18–86)Child (21 months-18) Traffic accident 254
Falling 38
Gunshot 13
Stabbing 6
Blunt 328
Penetrating 16
Chest trauma 259
128 38.1 ± 15.0(4–75) 7.3 ± 4.7 (3–15) 166 (30.3%)adult (30.9%) child (19.4%)  
  1. Notes: Values are expressed as numbers and % or mean±SD.
  2. acute renal failure, ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ISS Injury Severity Score, MOF Multiple organ failure, TBI Traumatic brain injury