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Table 1 Summary of patient characteristics and coagulation tests of the dead and surviving patients

From: Impact of fibrinogen level on the prognosis of patients with traumatic brain injury: a single-center analysis of 2570 patients

  Died (%) Survived (%) Total (%) P valuea
N 198 (100.0%) 2372 (100.0%) 2570 (100.0%)  
Age (mean ± SD) 56.25 ± 17.81 47.90 ± 16.10 48.54 ± 16.38 < .001
Sex     .391
 Male 154 (77.8%) 1780 (75.0%) 1934 (75.3%)  
 Female 44 (22.2%) 592 (25.0%) 636 (24.7%)  
Mechanism of injury     
 Traffic accident 119 (60.1%) 1346 (56.7%) 1465 (57.0%) .090
 Fall 20 (10.1%) 358 (15.1%) 378 (14.7%)  
 Stumble 44 (22.2%) 408 (17.2%) 452 (17.6%)  
 Blow to head 6 (3.0%) 104 (4.4%) 110 (4.3%)  
 Others 9 (4.5%) 156 (6.6%) 165 (6.4%)  
Pupillary reactions     
 Both reacting 103 (52.0%) 2145 (90.4%) 2248 (87.5%) < .001
 One reacting 50 (25.3%) 183 (7.7%) 233 (9.1%)  
 None reacting 45 (22.7%) 44 (1.9%) 89 (3.5%)  
GCS at admission 6.73 ± 3.31 11.34 ± 3.49 10.98 ± 3.69 < .001
 ≤8 145 (73.3%) 586 (24.7%) 731 (28.5%) < .001
 9-12 36 (18.2%) 653 (27.5%) 689 (26.8%)  
 13-15 17 (8.6%) 1133 (47.8%) 1150 (44.7%)  
CT findings     
 IPH or brain contusion 162 (81.8%) 1642 (69.2%) 1804 (70.2%) < .001
 SDH 104 (52.5%) 684 (28.8%) 788 (30.7%) < .001
 EDH 32 (16.2%) 662 (27.9%) 694 (27.0%) < .001
 DAI 19 (9.2%) 52 (2.2%) 71 (2.8%) < .001
Multiple body injuries 13 (6.6%) 134 (5.6%) 147 (5.7%) .594
 Face 1 (0.5%) 14 (0.6%) 15 (0.6%) 1.000
 Thorax 11 (5.6%) 92 (3.9%) 103 (4.0%) .333
 Abdomen 2 (1.0%) 8 (0.3%) 10 (0.4%) .385
 Extremities 2 (1%) 35 (1.5%) 37 (1.4%) .828
 External 1 (0.5%) 3 (0.1%) 4 (0.2%) .719
ISSb 22.33 ± 6.12 14.77 ± 7.02 15.35 ± 7.24 < .001
INR 1.16 ± 0.24 1.06 ± 0.13 1.07 ± 0.14 < .001
PT (s) 13.44 ± 2.71 12.161.55 12.26 ± 1.70 < .001
APTT (s) 31.19 ± 14.65 27.30 ± 7.20 27.60 ± 8.09 < .001
FIB (g/L) 2.06 ± 1.16 2.58 ± 1.13 2.54 ± 1.14 < .001
D-dimer (mg/L) 10.52 ± 14.67 6.90 ± 10.73 7.18 ± 11.12 < .001
PLT (× 109/L) 156 ± 61 177 ± 67 176 ± 67 < .001
Hb (g/L) 124 ± 25 131 ± 21 131 ± 21 < .001
HCT (%) 36.44 ± 6.92 38.36 ± 5.69 38.21 ± 5.82 < .001
  1. GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ISS Injury Severity Score, PLT platelet, INR international normalized ratio, PT prothrombin, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, FIB fibrinogen, EDH epidural hematoma, SDH subdural hematoma, IPH intraparenchymal hemorrhage, DAI diffuse axonal injury
  2. aP values not adjusted for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance determined by chi-square test, Student’s t test or Mann-Whitney tests
  3. bISS = AIS12 + AIS22 + AIS32, it is the sum of squares for the highest values in each of the three most severely injured body regions