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Table 2 Summary of patient characteristics and coagulation tests of the favorable and unfavorable outcome patients

From: Impact of fibrinogen level on the prognosis of patients with traumatic brain injury: a single-center analysis of 2570 patients

  Unfavorable outcome (%) Favorable outcome (%) Total (%) P valuea
N 802 (100.0%) 1768 (100.0%) 2570 (100.0%)  
Age (mean ± SD) 52.65 ± 16.20 46.68 ± 16.13 48.54 ± 16.38 < .001
Sex     .885
 Male 605 (75.4%) 1329 (75.2%) 1934 (75.3%)  
 Female 197 (24.6%) 439 (24.8%) 636 (24.7%)  
Mechanism of injury
 Traffic accident 469 (58.5%) 996 (56.3%) 1465 (57.0%) .060
 Fall 136 (17.0%) 242 (13.7%) 378 (14.7%)  
 Stumble 132 (16.5%) 320 (18.1%) 452 (17.6%)  
 Blow to head 21 (2.6%) 89 (5.0%) 110 (4.3%)  
 Others 44 (5.5%) 121 (6.8%) 165 (6.4%)  
Pupillary reactions
 Both reacting 565 (70.4%) 1683 (95.2%) 2248 (87.5%) < .001
 One reacting 160 (20.0%) 73 (4.1%) 233 (9.1%)  
 None reacting 77 (9.6%) 12 (0.7%) 89 (3.5%)  
GCS at admission 7.55 ± 3.01 12.54 ± 2.82 10.98 ± 3.69 < .001
 ≤8 523 (65.2%) 208 (11.8%) 731 (28.5%) < .001
 9–12 226 (28.2%) 463 (26.2%) 689 (26.8%)  
 13–15 53 (6.6%) 1097 (62.0%) 1150 (44.7%)  
CT findings
 IPH or brain contusion 687 (85.7%) 1117 (63.2%) 1804 (60.2%) < .001
 SDH 361 (45.0%) 427 (24.2%) 788 (30.7%) < .001
 EDH 173 (21.6%) 521 (29.5%) 694 (27.0%) < .001
 DAI 50 (6.2%) 20 (1.2%) 71 (2.8%) < .001
Multiple body injures 70 (8.7%) 77 (4.4%) 147 (5.7%) < .001
 Face 3 (0.4%) 2 (0.7%) 15 (0.6%) .509
 Thorax 57 (7.1%) 46 (2.6%) 103 (4.0%) < .001
 Abdomen 6 (0.7%) 4 (0.2%) 10 (0.4%) .014
 Extremities 16 (2%) 21 (1.2%) 37 (1.4%) .158
 External 3 (0.4%) 1 (0.1%) 4 (0.2%) .176
ISSb 21.5 ± 6.4 12.57 ± 5.73 15.35 ± 7.24 < .001
INR 1.10 ± 0.16 1.06 ± 0.13 1.07 ± 0.14 < .001
PT(s) 12.59 ± 1.92 12.11 ± 1.57 12.26 ± 1.70 < .001
APTT(s) 28.50 ± 9.62 27.19 ± 7.26 27.60 ± 8.09 < .001
FIB(g/L) 2.45 ± 1.39 2.58 ± 1.01 2.54 ± 1.14 .016
D-dimer (mg/L) 10.97 ± 15.44 5.46 ± 7.89 7.18 ± 11.12 < .001
PLT (× 109/L) 165 ± 70 181 ± 65 176 ± 67 < .001
Hb (g/L) 125 ± 24 133 ± 20 131 ± 21 < .001
HCT (%) 36.83 ± 6.62 38.83 ± 5.29 38.21 ± 5.82 < .001
  1. GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ISS Injury Severity Score, PLT platelet, INR international normalized ratio, PT prothrombin, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, FIB fibrinogen, EDH epidural hematoma, SDH subdural hematoma, IPH intraparenchymal hemorrhage, DAI diffuse axonal injury
  2. aP values not adjusted for multiple comparisons. Statistical significance determined by chi-square test, Student’s t test or Mann-Whitney tests
  3. bISS = AIS12 + AIS22 + AIS32, it is the sum of squares for the highest values in each of the three most severely injured body regions