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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, resuscitation strategies, and surgical interventions between LMICs and HICs

From: Outcomes and management approaches of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta based on the income of countries

Variable All (n = 817) LMIC (n = 73) HIC (n = 744) p value Missing
Age, median (IQR) 42 (27‑58.5) 37 (27‑49) 43.5 (27.5‑59.5) 0.08 13
Gender [female], n (%) 204 (25%) 19 (26%) 185 (24.9%) 0.8 0
Trauma mechanism     < 0.001 17
Blunt, n (%) 633/800 (79.1%) 42/73 (57.5%) 591/727 (81.2%)   
Penetrating, n (%) 167/800 (20.8%) 31/73 (42.7%) 136/727 (18.7%)   
ISS, median (IQR) 34 (25‑45) 32 (25‑50) 34 (25‑45) 0.6 96
Pre-Hosp CPR, n (%) 165/786 (21%) 1/71 (1.4%) 164/715 (22.9) < 0.001 31
CPR on arrival, n (%) 137/789 (17.3) 3 /73 (4.1%) 134/18.7 (18.7%) < 0.001 28
Admission SBP     < 0.001 30
Not measurable 149/787 (18.9%) 11/73 (15%) 138/714 (19.3%)   
< 50 58/787 (7.3%) 10/73 (13.7%) 48/714 (6.7%)   
50‑80 220/787 (27.9%) 41/73 (56.1%) 179/714 (56.1%)   
80‑100 342/787 (43.4%) 8/73 (10.9%) 334/714 (46.7%)   
> 100 18/787 (2.2%) 3/73 (4.1%) 15/714 (2.1%)   
Admission HR     0.005 55
< 50 94/762 (12.3%) 6/72 (8.3%) 88/690 (12.7%)   
50‑100 202 (26.5%) 15/72 (20.8%) 187/690 (27.1%)   
100‑120 154/762 (20.2%) 26/72 (36.1%) 128/690 (18.5%)   
> 120 312/762 (40.9%) 25/72 (34.7%) 287/690 (41.6%)   
Arrhythmia on admission, n (%) 208/755 (27.8%) 10/72 (13.9%) 198/683 (29%) 0.006 62
Pupilary response, n (%) 447/756 (59.1%) 63/73 (86.3%) 384/683 (56.2%) < 0.001 61
Admission INR, median (IQR) 1.4 (1.2‑1.7) 1.4 (1.2‑1.6) 1.4 (1.2‑1.8) 0.9 355
Admission pH, median (IQR) 7.16 (7.01‑7.26) 7.19 (7.03‑7.28) 7.16 (7.01‑7.26) 0.5 229
Admission Lactate, median (IQR) 7.2 (4.3‑11.3) 5.9 (4.4‑11.02) 7.2 (4.3‑11.3) 0.5 255
PRBCs in first 24 h, median (IQR) 12 (6‑23) 6 (4‑10) 13 (6.5‑24) < 0.001 64
FFP in first 24 h, median (IQR) 10 (4‑20) 5.5 (3‑9) 10 (4‑20) 0.001 83
Platelets in first 24 h, median (IQR) 3 (1‑10) 6 (0‑10) 3 (1‑10) 0.7 116
Laparotomy, n (%) 476/774 (61.5%) 48/72 (66.6%) 428/702 (61%) 0.3 43
Pelvic Surgery, n (%) 148/678 (21.8%) 9/73 (12.3%) 139/605 (22.9%) 0.03 139
Embolization, n (%) 105/707 (14.8%) 2/73 (2.7%) 103/634 (16.2%) 0.002 110