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Table 2 REBOA use and outcomes between LMICs and HICs

From: Outcomes and management approaches of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta based on the income of countries

Variable All (n = 817) LMIC (n = 73) HIC (n = 744) p value Missing
REBOA procedure      
Access location     < 0.001 34
ER, n (%) 548/783 (70%) 28/73 (38.3%) 520/710 (73.2%)   
OR, n (%) 214/783 (27.3%) 44/73 (60.2%) 170/710 (24.9%)   
Angio, n (%) 21/783 (2.6%) 1/73 (1.3%) 20/710 (2.8%)   
Access technique     < 0.001 23
Blind, n (%) 383/794 (48%) 13/73 (17.8%) 370/721 (51.3%)   
US guided, n (%) 237/794 (29.8%) 16/73 (21.9%) 221/721 (30.6%)   
Cut down, n (%) 162/794 (20.4%) 43/73 (58.9%) 119/721 (16.5%)   
Fluoroscopy, n (%) 12/794 (1.5%) 1/73 (1.37) 11/721 (1.53%)   
Cath/sheath diameter      454
Primary performer     < 0.001 90
Vascular surgeon, n (%) 53/727 (7.2%) 17/70 (24.2%) 36/657 (5.1%)   
Radiologist, n (%) 26/727 (3.5%) 1/70 (1.4%) 25/657 (3.8%)   
ER physician, n (%) 70/727 (9.6%) 6/70 (8.5%) 64/657 (9.7%)   
Trauma surgeon, n (%) 547/727 (75.2%) 43/70 (61.4%) 504/657 (76.7%)   
General surgeon, n (%) 7/727 (0.9%) 3/70 (4.2%) 4/657 (0.6%)   
Anesthesiologist, n (%) 13/727 (13%) 0/70 (0%) 13/657 (1.9%)   
Resident/fellow, n (%) 11/727 (1.5%) 0/70 (0%) 11/657 (1.6%)   
SBP at REBOA initiation, median (IQR) 60 (40‑80) 50 (32‑60) 62 (40‑80) < 0.001 76
Zone of occlusion     0.02 10
Zone I, n (%) 555/807 (68%) 59/73 (80.8%) 496/734 (67.5%)   
Zone II, n (%) 16/807 (1.9%) 2/73 (2.7%) 14/734 (1.9%)   
Zone III, n (%) 236//807 12/73 (16.4%) 224//734 (30.5%)   
Confirmed balloon migration, n (%) 39/817 (4.7%) 1/73 (1.3%) 38/681 (5.1%) 0.2 0
Groin access complications, n (%) 65/775 (8.3%) 6/70 (8.5%) 59/705 (8.3%) 0.9 42
AKI, n (%) 137/743 (18.4%) 8/73 (10.9%) 129/670 (19.5%) 0.08 74
MODS, n (%) 130/729 (17.8%) 45/68 (66.1%) 85/661 (12.8%) < 0.001 88
Respiratory failure, n (%) 95/727 (13.1%) 22/70 (31.2%) 73/657 (11.1%) < 0.001 90
Sepsis, n (%) 82/729 (11.2%) 9/70 (12.8%) 73/659 (11.1%) 0.6 88
Ventilator days, median (IQR) 2 (1‑7) 3 (1‑6) 2 (1‑6) 0.4 89
Mortality, n (%) 479 (58.6%) 37 (50.6%) 442 (59.4%) 0.1 0