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Table 1 Demographic data of patients transported to the three hubs

From: Impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on severe trauma trends and healthcare system reassessment in Lombardia, Italy: an analysis from the regional trauma registry

  COVID-19 no COVID-19 P value
Total trauma transported by EMS 744 1150  
Total transported to the hubs [n (%)] 345 (46.4) 325 (28.3) 0.001*
Male [n (%)] 262 (75.9) 248 (76.3) 0.92
Age [median (IQR)] 48
(34-64)
43.0
(27-62)
0.017*
Penetrating [n (%)] 32 (9.3) 17 (5.2) 0.063
Triage code 1 [n (%)] 103 (29.9) 111 (34.2) 0.267
Triage code 2 [n (%)] 235 (68.1) 201 (61.8) 0.105
Triage code 3[n (%)] 7 (2.0) 13 (4.0) 0.204
Admitted [n (%)] 266 (77.1) 237 (72.9) 0.32
ISS (of admitted pts)
[median (IQR)]
13
8-21.75
14
8-25
0.44
ISS < 16 [n (%)] 150 (56.4) 131 (55.3) 0.871
ISS 16-24 [n (%)] 61 (22.9) 46 (19.4) 0.393
ISS > 24 [n (%)] 55 (20.7) 60 (25.3) 0.258
Helicopter ALS with doctor [n (%)] 100 (29) 71 (21.8) 0.042*
Ground ALS with nurse [n (%)] 20 (5.8) 25 (7.7) 0.409
Ground ALS with doctor [n (%)] 136 (39.4) 155 (47.7) 0.037*
Ground BLS with paramedic [n (%)] 80 (23.2) 64 (19.7) 0.314
Transfer from other Hospital [n (%)] 9 (2.6) 10 (3.1) 0.895
AIS ≥ 3 head and neck [n (%)] 99 (37.2) 92 (34.6) 0.782
AIS ≥ 3 chest [n (%)] 103 (38.7) 88 (33.1) 0.783
AIS ≥ 3 abdomen [n (%)] 62 (23.3) 48 (18) 0.472
AIS ≥ 3 skeletal [n (%)] 106 (39.8) 95 (35.7) 1.000
ICU admission [n (%)] 92 (34.6) 98 (41.4) 0.142
Surgery < 24 h (%) 35 (13.2) 33 (13.9) 0.904
Died on ED [n (%)] 5 (1.9) 1 (0.4) 0.275
Died in the hospital [n (%)] 18 (6.8) 19 (8) 0.715
TRISS expected hospital mortality (%) 9.9 11.5 0.901
Observed hospital mortality (%) 6.8 8 0.634
Delta between observed and expected hospital mortality −3.1 −3.5 1.000
  1. *: ≤ 0.05
  2. EMS emergency medical system, ISS injury severity score, AIS abbreviated injury scale, ED emergency department, ALS advanced life support, BLS basic life support, TRISS trauma and injury score