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Table 1 Relation of patient and disease characteristics with mortality

From: Outcome of necrotizing fasciitis and Fournier's gangrene with and without hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a retrospective analysis over 10 years

Characteristic Total, n (%) Mortality, n (%)
Yes No Pa
  192 (100) 53 (27.6) 139 (72.4)  
Sex
 Male 127 (66.1) 34 (64.2) 93 (66.9) 0.718
 Female 65 (33.9) 19 (35.8) 46 (33.1)  
Age (years)
 Mean (SD) 61.2 (15.1) 65.7 (14.1) 59.5 (15.2) 0.006
  < 60 87 (45.3) 15 (28.3) 72 (51.8) 0.003
  ≥ 60 105 (54.7) 38 (71.7) 67 (48.2)  
Diagnosis
 Necrotizing fasciitis 153 (79.7) 44 (83.0) 109 (78.4) 0.479
 Fournier's gangrene 39 (20.3) 9 (17.0) 30 (21.6)  
Localization
 Lower extremity 137 (71.4) 39 (73.6) 98 (70.5) 0.673
 Genital/perineal/gluteal 74 (38.5) 24 (45.3) 50 (36.0) 0.236
 Trunk 40 (20.8) 14 (26.4) 26 (18.7) 0.240
 Retroperitonealb 4 (2.1) 3 (5.7) 1 (0.7) 0.065
 Upper extremityb 10 (5.2) 3 (5.7) 7 (5.0) 1.000
 Head/neck 1 (0.5) 1 (100.0) 0 (0.0) n.d
 Multiple localizations 56 (29.2) 23 (43.4) 33 (23.7) 0.007
Initial signs and symptoms
 Sepsis at admission 132 (68.8) 41 (77.4) 91 (65.5) 0.112
 Positive blood culturec 69 (44.8) 30 (65.2) 39 (36.1) 0.001
 Leucocyte count, mean (SD) 18.4 (8.3) 19.3 (9.8) 18.0 (7.7) 0.454
 CRP, mean (SD) 259.4 (138.4) 236.7 (141.0) 268.3 (136.8) 0.156
 LRINECd, mean (SD) 7.1 (2.8) 7.3 (2.9) 7.1 (2.8) 0.556
 Modified LRINECe, mean (SD) 10.2 (3.3) 10.4 (3.4) 10.2 (3.3) 0.754
Comorbidities
 Number, mean (SD) 2.8 (1.6) 3.0 (1.5) 2.7 (1.6) 0.206
  < 3 95 (49.5) 20 (37.7) 75 (54.0) 0.044
  ≥ 3 97 (50.5) 33 (62.3) 64 (46.0)  
 Diabetes mellitus 93 (48.4) 27 (50.9) 66 (47.5) 0.668
 Vascular diseasesf 58 (30.2) 16 (30.2) 42 (30.2) 0.997
 Renal diseases 52 (27.1) 16 (30.2) 36 (25.9) 0.550
 Cardiac diseases 75 (39.1) 25 (47.2) 50 (36.0) 0.155
 Liver diseases 32 (16.7) 15 (28.3) 17 (12.2) 0.008
 Arterial hypertension 115 (59.9) 26 (49.1) 89 (64.0) 0.058
 History of stroke 15 (7.8) 5 (9.4) 10 (7.2) 0.605
 Alcohol abuse 29 (15.1) 8 (15.1) 21 (15.1) 0.998
 Substance abuse (i.v.)b 10 (5.2) 5 (9.4) 5 (3.6) 0.142
 Psychiatric diseasesb 17 (8.9) 2 (3.8) 15 (10.8) 0.161
 Malignant diseases 29 (15.1) 12 (22.6) 17 (12.2) 0.072
 Immunosuppression 28 (14.6) 12 (22.6) 16 (11.5) 0.051
  1. For calculation of percentages, the number of patients in each column (i.e., in the total cohort and in subgroups with and without mortality) was set to 100%
  2. CRP C-reactive protein, i.v. intravenous, n.d. not determined, SD standard deviation
  3. aCharacteristics of subgroups with and without mortality were compared with Chi-squared test for categorical variables, with Mann-Whitney-U test for continuous variables in two categories and with Kruskal-Wallis test for linear variables in three categories. Significant differences are highlighted in bold
  4. bExact Fisher-t-test
  5. cBlood cultures were taken before initiation of antibiotics
  6. dLRINEC: Laboratory Risk Indicator for NECrotizing fasciitis
  7. eThe modified LRINEC could be calculated in 131 participants (n = 61: missing data)
  8. fVascular diseases comprised peripheral arterial occlusive disease, chronic venous insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism