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Table 3 Patient and disease characteristics of subgroups with and without hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)

From: Outcome of necrotizing fasciitis and Fournier's gangrene with and without hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a retrospective analysis over 10 years

Characteristic HBOT
No, not indicated Yes No, ineligible Pa
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Total (n = 192) 98 (51.0) 83 (43.2) 11 (5.7)  
Sex
 Male 69 (70.4) 48 (57.8) 10 (90.9) 0.041
 Female 29 (29.6) 35 (42.2) 1 (9.1)  
Age (years)
 Mean (SD) 64.3 (14.1) 58.8 (15.3) 52.3 (16.8) 0.008
  < 60 35 (35.7) 44 (53.0) 8 (72.7) 0.011
  ≥ 60 63 (64.3) 39 (47.0) 3 (27.3)  
Diagnosis
 Necrotizing fasciitis 78 (79.6) 64 (77.1) 11 (100.0) 0.207
 Fournier's gangrene 20 (20.4) 19 (22.9) 0 (0.0)  
Localization
 Lower extremity 76 (77.6) 53 (63.9) 8 (72.7) 0.127
 Genital/inguinal/perineal 29 (29.6) 40 (48.2) 5 (45.5) 0.033
 Trunk 9 (9.2) 26 (31.3) 5 (45.5)  < 0.001
 Retroperitonealb 1 (1.0) 3 (3.6) 0 (0.0) 0.421
 Upper extremityb 2 (2.0) 8 (9.6) 0 (0.0) 0.052
 Head/neck 0 (0.0) 1 (1.2) 0 (0.0) n.d
 Multiple localizations 16 (16.3) 35 (42.2) 5 (45.5)  < 0.001
Initial signs and symptoms
 Sepsis at admission 49 (50.0) 74 (89.2) 9 (81.8)  < 0.001
 Positive blood culturec 32 (46.4) 30 (40.0) 7 (70.0) 0.189
 Leucocyte count, mean (SD) 16.7 (7.7) 19.8 (8.2) 21.8 (11.4) 0.017
 CRP, mean (SD) 235.6 (142.0) 284.2 (132.0) 284.5 (126.2) 0.049
 LRINECd, mean (SD) 6.6 (2.9) 7.6 (2.5) 8.3 (2.8) 0.015
 Modified LRINECe, mean (SD) 9.4 (3.4) 11.1 (2.8) 11.0 (4.8) 0.011
Comorbidities
 Number, mean (SD) 3.0 (1.5) 2.5 (1.7) 2.6 (1.4) 0.066
  < 3 39 (39.8) 49 (59.0) 7 (63.6) 0.022
  ≥ 3 59 (60.2) 34 (41.0) 4 (36.4)  
 Diabetes mellitus 51 (52.0) 35 (42.2) 7 (63.6) 0.243
 Vascular diseasesf 36 (36.7) 19 (22.9) 3 (27.3) 0.127
 Renal diseases 28 (28.6) 20 (24.1) 4 (36.4) 0.617
 Cardiac diseases 44 (44.9) 28 (33.7) 3 (27.3) 0.219
 Liver diseases 18 (18.4) 11 (13.3) 3 (27.3) 0.408
 Arterial hypertension 67 (68.4) 45 (54.2) 3 (27.3) 0.012
 History of stroke 7 (7.1) 8 (9.6) 0 (0.0) 0.502
 Alcohol abuse 18 (18.4) 10 (12.0) 1 (9.1) 0.421
 Substance abuse (i.v.) 3 (3.1) 6 (7.2) 1 (9.1) 0.380
 Psychiatric diseases 6 (6.1) 11 (13.3) 0 (0.0) 0.138
 Malignant diseases 16 (16.3) 10 (12.0) 3 (27.3) 0.370
 Immunosuppression 17 (17.3) 10 (12.0) 1 (9.1) 0.523
  1. For calculation of percentages, the number of patients in each column (i.e., HBOT no, not indicated, HBOT yes and HBOT no, ineligible) was set to 100%
  2. CRP C-reactive protein, i.v. intravenous, SD standard deviation
  3. aCharacteristics of the three subgroups were compared with Chi-squared test for categorical variables and with Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables. Significant differences are highlighted in bold
  4. bExact Fisher-t-test
  5. cBlood cultures were taken before initiation of antibiotics
  6. dLRINEC: Laboratory Risk Indicator for NECrotizing fasciitis
  7. eThe modified LRINEC could be calculated in 131 participants (n = 61: missing data)
  8. fVascular diseases comprised peripheral arterial occlusive disease, chronic venous insufficiency, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism