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Table 1 Hard clinical signs in n = 113 patients with arterial vascular injuries

From: Penetrating arterial trauma to the limbs: outcome of a modified protocol

Clinical signs* Femoral Popliteal Axillary Brachial Total
  all pts: n = 34 all pts: n = 25 all pts: n = 10 all pts: n = 47 all pts: n = 113
  pts [n] pts [%] pts [n] pts [%] pts [n] pts [%] pts [n] pts [%] pts [n] pts [%]
Cold ischemic extr. 8 24% 18 72% 2 20% 11 23% 39 35%
Absent pulses 14 41% 14 56% 7 70% 19 40% 54 48%
Bruit or thrill 1 3% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 1 1%
Exp. or pulsating H 3 9% 2 8% 0 0% 2 4% 7 6%
Pulsatile bleeding 6 18% 5 20% 3 30% 12 26% 26 23%
  1. Seven of the patients underwent immediate amputation. *Please note that multiple signs are possible. Pts = patients; extr. = extremity; Exp. or pulsating H. = patients with expanding or pulsating hematoma.