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Table 2 Revised papers 1990-2013

From: Management of hemodynamically unstable pelvic trauma: results of the first Italian consensus conference (cooperative guidelines of the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology -Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology- and the World Society of Emergency Surgery)

  Reference Year Design Patients Comments
1 Burgess [1] 1990 Prospective 25 unstable Acute external fixation and angio
2. Flint [10] 1990 Prospective observational 60 Use of PASG, 37/60 had ORIF within 24 hrs, only 4 ext fix
3. Latenser [11] 1991 Prospective with historical controls 18/19 Early defined as internal or external fixation within 8 hrs from arrival
4. Broos [12] 1992 Retrospective 44 type B and C fractures Immediate fixation
5. Gruen [13] 1994 Retrospective 36 unstable Angio and anterior urgent ORIF [within 2-3 days]
6. Van Veen [14] 1995 Retrospective 9 unstable Peritoneal packing, bilateral ligation of internal iliac artery, EF and/or ORIF within 6 hours
7. Heini [15] 1996 Retrospective 18 unstable C clamp placement
8. Bassam [16] 1998 Prospective observational 15 unstable External fixation first if anterior fracture, angio first if posterior fracture
9. Velmahos [17] 2000 Retrospective 30 unstable Bilateral embolization of iliac internal artery
10. Wong [18] 2000 Retrospective 17 unstable External fixation and angio, either before or after
11. Biffl [19] 2001 Observational with historical controls 50/38 systolic blood pressure < 90 Use of angio and early external fixation or C clamp
12. Ertel [20] 2001 Retrospective 20 Use of C clamp and pelvic packing
13. Cook [21] 2002 Retrospective 74 unstable [23 underwent angio] Exernal fixation and angio
14. Kushimoto [22] 2003 Retrospective 29 mixed population Angio before and after Damage Control Laparotomy. No pelvic packing or external fixation. High mortality.
15. Miller [23] 2003 Retrospective 35 unstable Angio and then external fixation. If laparotomy first angio done after external fixation
16. Hagiwara [24] 2003 Prospective 61 stable and unstable Angio and then external fixation in the angio suite
17. Ruchholtz [25] 2004 Prospective 21 unstable Early external fixation in mechanically unstable fractures
18. Fangio [26] 2005 Retrospective 32 unstable Angio first usually. No packing. Laparotomy before or after angio. Some external fixation
19. Sadri [27] 2005 Retrospective 14 unstable C clamp and then angio
20. Krieg [28] 2005 Prospective 16 unstable Outcomes following pelvic belt
21. Croce [29] 2007 Retrospective 186 [stable and unstable] Use of External fixation or T-POD® and angio
22. Lai [30] 2008 Retrospective 7 unstable External fixation and angio
23. Richard [31] 2009 Prospective 24 APC-2 pelvic injuries [11 unstable] Anteriorly placed C-clamp [in the ER, angio suite or OR]
24. Morozumi [32] 2010 Retrospective 12 unstable Mobile angio first. No packing or fixation
25. Jeske [33] 2010 Retrospective 45 unstable External fixation and angio
26. Enninghorst [34] 2010 Retrospective 18 unstable Acute ORIF [< 24 hrs]
27. Tan [35] 2010 Prospective 15 unstable Application of T-POD®
28. Cherry [36] 2011 Retrospective 12 unstable OR angio.
29. Karadimas [37] 2011 Retrospective 34 mixed population External fixation and secondary angio.
30. Hornez [38] 2011 Retrospective 17 unstable Pelvic packing, angio and fixation.
31. Fang [39] 2011 Retrospective 76 unstable Mixed population [60% unstable fractures]. Angio and/or laparotomy. No packing.
32. Tai [40] 2011 Retrospective 24 unstable Shift to pelvic packing and external fixation before angio
33. Burlew [41] 2011 Prospective 75 Preperitoneal pelvic packing and external fixation in emergency. Secondary angiography
34. Fu [42] 2012 Retrospective 28 unstable Angio [available 24 hrs] directly if negative FAST. Intraperitoneal packing. No fixation.
35. Hu [43] 2012 Retrospective 15 unstable External fixation
36. Metsemakers [44] 2013 Retrospective 98 unstable External fixation first, no pelvic packing for closed fractures. Then angio [13 embolized out of 15 angio done]
37. Abrassart [45] 2013 Retrospective 70 unstable 4 groups with either external fixation only, together with angio, laparotomy or angio before external fixation