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Table 2 Aetiology of esophageal perforation (in descending order of incidence) [ 4,14-16]

From: Non operative management of traumatic esophageal perforation leading to esophagocutaneous fistula in pediatric age group: review and case report

Children Adults
1) Iatrogenic (diagnostic or therapeutic instrumentation) 1) Iatrogenic (diagnostic or therapeutic instrumentation)
2) Lye burns 2) Spontaneous (Boerhaave’s syndrome)
3) Direct/Indirect trauma 3) Foreign bodies
4) Foreign bodies 4) Penetrating trauma (m.c.- gunshot)
5) Operative procedures in the area 5) Malignant perforations
6) Idiopathic 6) Operative injury
  7) Idiopathic
  1. m.c. – most common.