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Table 2 Comparison of acute mild TBI with tICH patients who needed delayed neuro-surgical and non-surgical intervention on admission

From: Risk factors for delayed neuro-surgical intervention in patients with acute mild traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage

  Delayed neuro-surgical intervention Non-neurosurgical intervention p value OR 95 % CI
n = 13 n = 327
Median age, years, (IQR) 43(25, 49) 50(32, 61) 0.082   
Male/female (%) 9 (69 %)/4 (31 %) 194 (59 %)/133 (41 %) 0.573 0.648 0.196–2.149
GCS at presentation, Median (IQR) 15(14, 15) 15(15, 15) 0.189   
 13 (%) 2 (15.4 %) 16 (4.9 %)    
 14 (%) 3 (23.1 %) 63 (19.3 %)    
 15 (%) 8 (61.5 %) 248 (75.8 %)    
Anti-platelet and/or warfarin therapy 1 (7.7 %) 12 (3.7 %) 0.403 2.188 0.263–18.222
Statin therapy 0 6 (1.8 %) 1.000   
Hypotension 0 4 (1.2 %) 1.000   
Blood test      
 WBC count (1000/mL), Median (IQR) 15.00 (12.4, 17.05) 11.7 (8.80, 17.05) 0.023   
 RBC count (1000/mL), Median (IQR) 4.74 (4.075, 5.945) 4.59 (4.26, 4.98) 0.401   
 Hemoglobin, Median (IQR) 14.10 (12.85, 14.90) 13.60 (12.30, 15.00) 0.606   
 Coagulopathy 0 10 (3.1 %) 1.000   
Underlying diseases      
 Hypertension (%) 2 (15.4 %) 89 (27.2 %) 0.526 0.484 0.105–2.228
 Diabetes mellitus (%) 2 (15.4 %) 49 (15.0 %) 1.000 1.028 0.221–4.780
 Old cerebral vascular accident 0 9 (2.8 %) 1.000   
 Coronary artery diseases 0 8 (2.4 %) 1.000   
 Arrhythmia 0 6 (1.8 %) 1.000   
 Liver cirrhosis 0 5 (1.5 %) 1.000   
 Chronic renal disease 0 7 (2.1 %) 1.000   
 Renal failure 0 5 (1.5 %) 1.000   
ISS score, Median (IQR) 16 (15, 17.5) 10 (9, 16) 0.005   
Single intracranial hemorrhage (%) 6 (46.2 %) 216 (66.1 %) 0.149   
Multiple intracranial hemorrhage (%) 7 (53.8 %) 111 (33.9 %) 0.149   
Type of intracranial hemorrhage      
 EDH (%) 6 (46.2 %) 26 (8.0 %) ≤0.001 9.923 3.105–31.708
 SDH (%) 6 (46.2 %) 159 (48.6 %) 1.000 0.906 0.298–2.753
 IPH (%) 6 (46.2 %) 105 (32.1 %) 0.366 1.812 0.594–5.526
 SAH (%) 3 (23.1 %) 178 (54.4 %) 0.044 0.251 0.068–929
 IVH (%) 1 (33.4 %) 2 (0.6 %) 0.111 13.542 1.147–159.876
 Midline shift (%) 5 (33.4 %) 10 (3.1 %) ≤0.001 19.813 5.495–71.435
 Skull fracture (%) 11 (14.3 %) 66 (20.2 %) ≤0.001 21.750 4.707–100.510
 Pneumocranium (%) 0 32 (9.8 %) 0.621   
Volume of hemorrhage in initial brain CT      
Volume of EDH, Median (IQR) 30.98 (9.68, 46.86) 2.20 (0.67, 6.71) ≤0.001   
Volume of SDH, Median (IQR) 4.56 (1.13, 17.83) 1.32 (0.15, 5.38) 0.092   
Volume of IPH, Median (IQR) 2.33 (0.11, 7.3) 0.59 (0.11, 2.53) 0.657   
  1. Abbreviations: TBI traumatic brain injury; tICH traumatic intracranial hemorrhage; N number of cases; IQR inter-quartile range; OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; EDH epidural hemorrhage; SDH subdural hemorrhage; IPH intraparenchymal hemorrhage; SAH sub-arachnoid hemorrhage; IVH intraventricular hemorrhage; GCS Glasgow Outcome Scale