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Table 1 More frequent pathogens according to the surgical procedure

From: Focus on the prophylaxis, epidemiology and therapy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections and a position paper on associated risk factors: the perspective of an Italian group of surgeons

Type of surgery Likely Pathogens
Placement of all grafts, prostheses, or implants S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci
Cardiac S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci
Neurosurgery S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci
Breast S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci
Ophthalmic (limited data, however, commonly used in procedures such as anterior segment resection, vitrectomy, and scleral buckles) S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, streptococci, gram-negative bacilli
Orthopedic (Total joint replacement, closed fractured/use of nails, bone plates, other internal fixation device, functional repair without implant/device trauma) S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, gram-negative bacilli
Non-cardiac thoracic (lobectomy, pneumonectomy, wedge resection, other non-cardiac mediastinal procedures) Closed tube thoracotomy S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, S. pneumoniae, gram-negative bacilli
Vascular S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci
Appendectomy Gram-negative bacilli, anaerobes
Biliary tract Gram-negative bacilli, anaerobes
Colorectal Gram-negative bacilli, anaerobes
Gastroduodenal Gram-negative bacilli, streptococci, oropharyngeal anaerobes (e.g. peptostreptococci)
Head and neck (majorly procedures with incision through oropharyngeal mucosa) S. aureus, streptococci, oropharyngeal anaerobes (e.g. peptostreptococci)
Obstetric and gynecologic Gram-negative bacilli, enterococci, group B streptococci, anaerobes
Urologic Gram-negative bacilli