Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Univariate analysis of risk factors for complications

From: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis: a retrospective study assessing risk factors for conversion and complications

Risk factor One or more postoperative complications n = 67 (18.0%)a Patients without complications n = 306 OR (95% CI) P
Gender: Male 44 (23.3%) 145 2.1 (1.2–3.7) 0.007
Age in years, median (range) 70 (30–92) 61 (20–94) NA 0.001
Heart failure 7 (29.2%) 17 2.0 (0.8–5.0) 0.139
Impaired renal function 6 (54.5%) 5 5.9 (1.8–20.0) 0.006
Diabetes 18 (26.5%) 50 1.9 (1.0–3.5) 0.043
Previous laparotomy on the upper abdomen 8 (40.0%) 12 3.3 (1.3–8.5) 0.008
Previous laparotomy on the lower abdomenb 16 (18.2%) 72 1.0 (0.5–1.8) 0.944
Previous laparoscopic surgery on the abdomenb 2 (8.3%) 22 0.4 (0.1–1.7) 0.276
No previous surgeries 43 (17.7%) 200 1.0 (0.5–1.6) 0.854
Duration of symptoms before admissionc
  < 24 h 18 (14.5%) 106 0.8 (0.4–1.4) 0.360
 24 h – 48 h 11 (22.9%) 37 1.6 (0.7–3.3) 0.235
 48 h – 72 h 10 (15.6%) 54 0.9 (0.4–1.9) 0.751
  > 72 h 18 (18.0%) 82 1.1 (0.6–2.1) 0.742
 Hours from admission to surgery, median (range, interquartile range) 26 (3–92, 16–43) 29 (4–144, 20–48) NA 0.141
Duration from symptoms onset to surgeryc
  < 24 h 9 (16.1%) 47 0.9 (0.4–2.0) 0.845
 24 h - 48 h 9 (18.4%) 40 1.1 (0.5–2.5) 0.777
 48 h - 72 h 14 (18.7%) 61 1.2 (0.6–2.3) 0.656
  > 72 h 24 (15.5%) 131 0.8 (0.5–1.5) 0.575
Clinical findings
 Pain in right upper quadrant 65 (18.3%) 290 1.8 (0.4–8.0) 0.438
 Guarding 33 (20.6%) 127 1.4 (0.8–2.3) 0.246
 Signs of generalized peritonitis 0 2 NA 1.000
 Palpable gallbladder 4 (20.0%) 16 1.2 (0.4–3.6) 0.767
Preoperative laboratory data, median of the highest results (range, interquartile range)d
 CRP (mg/l) 209 (4–477, 114–303) 131 (3–524, 62–232) NA <0.001
 WBCC (109/l) 14.4 (5.4–37.4, 10.8–18.5) 12.7 (2.5–38, 10–16.5) NA 0.069
 ALAT (U/l) 31 (5–473, 18–74) 28 (4–705, 18–51) NA 0.439
AFOS (U/l) 91 (24–314, 68–118) 79 (26–621, 61–113) NA 0.105
 Bilirubin (μmol/l) 19 (4–92, 11–25) 14 (2–230, 9–24) NA 0.139
Radiographic findingse
 Abscess 0 1 NA 1.000
 Free fluid 7 (28.0%) 18 1.9 (0.7–4.7) 0.182
 Thickened gallbladder wall 61 (19.6%) 250 2.2 (0.9–5.4) 0.069
Surgical findings and procedures   
 Preoperative ERCP 3 (17.6%) 14 1.0 (0.3–3.5) 1.000
 Abscess 5 (33.3%) 10 2.4 (0.8–7.2) 0.160
 Perforated gallbladder 9 (25.0%) 27 1.6 (0.7–3.6) 0.234
 Gallbladder perforation during surgery 38 (20.3%) 149 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 0.452
 Gangrene of the gallbladder identified by surgeon 31 (23.0%) 104 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 0.058
 Removal of stones from the common bile duct 0 0 NA NA
 Duration of surgery in minutes, median (range, interquartile range) 110 (60–196, 83–138) 98 (34–240, 74–123) NA 0.023
 Lead surgeon specialist 24 (19.0%) 102 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 0.697
 Assistant presentf 34 (19.2%) 143 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.540
 Conversion 25 (29.8%) 59 2.5 (1.4–4.4) 0.001
  1. NA Not applicable, LC Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, OR Odds ratio, CRP C-reactive protein, WBCC White blood cell count, ERCP Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancretography, ALAT Alanine transferase, AFOS Alkaline phosphatase
  2. apercentages show the proportion of patients with specified risk factor
  3. bFifteen patients had mentions of an appendectomy in their patient journals, but it was not specified whether the procedure was laparoscopic or open
  4. cDuration of symptoms missing from 25 patients in LC and 12 in conversion
  5. dCRP missing from one patient, ALAT missing from seven patients, AFOS missing from eight patients, bilirubin missing from 18 patients
  6. eA total of 239 patients had an ultrasound, 65 had computed tomography (CT) and 62 had both. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was used in 93 patients. One patient did not undergo any imaging
  7. fAssistant present prior to conversion, info on timing of assistant arrival missing in five cases