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Table 4 Type of head injury, interventions, and complications among pTBI patients

From: Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: a 5-year descriptive study from the National Trauma Center in Qatar

Variable 0–4 years (n = 39) 5–9 years (n = 33) 10–14 years (n = 29) 15–18 years (n = 66) P
Type of head injury (%)
 Skull fracture 69 70 64 53 0.31
 Brain contusion 36.4 35.7 61.5 58.6 0.04
 Subdural hemorrhage 19.4 17.4 36.4 24.5 0.42
 Epidural hemorrhage 12.9 8.7 22.7 13.0 0.56
 Extra axial hemorrhage 3.4 12.5 5.3 5.9 0.58
 Subarachnoid hemorrhage 22.6 25.0 25.0 24.5 0.99
 Intraventricular hemorrhage 10.0 4.3 0.0 11.8 0.36
 Intracerebral hemorrhage 3.4 16.7 0.0 3.8 0.06
 Pneumocephalus 10.3 21.7 23.8 11.5 0.38
 Brain edema 34.4 23.1 27.3 33.3 0.75
 Diffuse axonal injury 9.7 15.4 14.3 24.1 0.36
ICP monitor insertion (%) 20.5 6.1 10.3 18.2 0.25
Craniotomy/craniectomy (%) 17.9 3.0 10.3 9.0 0.22
Intubation 26 (66.7%) 20 (60.6%) 22 (75.9%) 61 (92.4%) 0.001
Intubation at scene 15.4 15 41 61 0.001
Intubation at TRU/ED 84.6 85 59 39 0.001
Hospital stay; median(range) 7 (1–98) 7 (1–38) 10.5 (2–76) 19 (1–131) 0.001
ICU stay, median,(range) 2.5 (1–39) 2 (1–11) 3 (1–27) 11 (1–37) 0.001
Ventilator days, median(range) 1 (1–37) 1 (1–6) 1 (1–21) 5 (1–27) 0.001
Pneumonia (%) 6.7 0.0 23.8 46.4 0.001
Sepsis (%) 3.4 0.0 0.0 17.3 0.01