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Table 1 Characteristics of the 41 studies included in the systematic review

From: Outcomes of selective nonoperative management of civilian abdominal gunshot wounds: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study (setting, year) Temporality Study period Trauma center level of care No. of abdo GSWs No. abdo GSWs treated with SNOM Mean age (years) Mean ISS Reported SNOM characteristics
Frequency of physical exam Serial examination done by Serial laboratory examination Use of CT
Reed et al. [65] (USA, 2017) Retrospective 2003–2014 NR 127 63 26 17 NR NR NR Selective
Peponis et al. [35] (USA, 2017) Retrospective 1996–2015 I and II 922 215 NR NR Serial Trauma team NR Selective
Starling et al. [59] (Brazil, 2015) Prospective 2005–2014 NR 169 28 27.7 10.9 NR NR Yes Mandatory
Navsaria et al. [45] (SA, 2015) Prospective 2004–2009 I 1106 272 27.9 NR Serial NR Yes Selective
Laing et al. [30] (SA, 2014) Retrospective 2012–2013 NR 80 15 28 NR 4-hourly for 12–24 h Surgical trainee NR Mandatory
Cesar et al. [61] (Brazil, 2013) Prospective 2005–2012 NR NR 37 24 16 NR NR NR Mandatory
Inaba et al. [46] (USA, 2012) Prospective 2009–2011 NR 270 91 26.3 7.9 Serial Trauma surgeon Yes Mandatory
Starling et al. [40] (Brazil, 2012) Prospective 2005–2011 NR NR 115 25.8 14.8 Short time intervals NR Yes Mandatory
Zafar et al. [62] (USA, 2012) Retrospective 2003–2008 I and II 12,707 3564 30 NR NR NR NR Selective
Hope et al. [63] (USA, 2012) Retrospective 2006–2008 II 39 6 NR NR NR NR NR Mandatory
Mnguni et al. [36] (SA, 2012) Prospective 1998–2204 I 240 13 28.6 12.2 Serial NR NR Selective
Schnüriger et al. [66] (USA, 2011) Retrospective 2005–2007 I 125 11 28.1 22.5 NR NR NR Mandatory
Fikry et al. [31] (USA, 2011) Retrospective 1999–2009 I 125 38 25 14 NR NR NR Selective
Bjurlin et al. [32] (USA, 2011) Retrospective 2003–2008 NR 79 25 NR NR NR NR NR Selective
Navsaria and Nicol [33] (SA, 2009) Prospective 2004–2008 I 95 33 22.8 10.5 Serial for 48 h NR 4-hourly hemoglobin level Mandatory
Voelzke and McAninch [37] (USA, 2009) Retrospective 1978–2008 I 201 51 27.8 NR NR NR NR Selective
Navsaria et al. [47] (SA, 2009) Prospective 2004–2008 I 195 63 27.2 19.6 Serial for 48 h NR 4-hourly hemoglobin level Mandatory
Schmelzer et al. [64] (USA, 2008) Prospective NR I 65 19 NR NR NR NR NR Selective
Chamisa [48] (SA, 2008) Prospective Jan–Jun, 2008 NR 78 19 NR NR 2-hourly interval NR NR Selective
DuBose et al. [60] (USA, 2007) Retrospective 1999–2005 I 644 144 28 15 NR NR Yes Mandatory
MacLeod et al. [44] (USA, 2007) Retrospective 1995–2003 I 896 396 27.8 16 Serial NR Yes Selective
Demetriades et al. [38] (USA, 2006) Prospective 2004–2006 I 107 39 NR NR Serial for 24–28 h NR Yes Selective
Velmahos et al. [12] (USA, 2005) Prospective 2002–2004 I 273 103 27 11 NR NR NR Mandatory
Omoshoro-Jones et al. [49] (SA, 2005) Prospective 2000–2002 I 124 33 25 NR Serial for 48 h NR Yes Mandatory
Múnera et al. [11] (USA, 2004) Prospective 2000–2002 I 47 36 23.5 NR NR NR NR Mandatory
Velmahos et al. [39] (USA, 2001) Retrospective 1993–2000 I 1856 792 25 3 Frequent for 12–24 h Same resident with active involvement of attending staff NR Selective
Demetriades et al. [50] (USA, 1999) Retrospective 1994–1998 I 52 16 30 17.5 Serial for 24 h NR Yes Mandatory
Velmahos et al. [67] (USA, 1998) Retrospective 1994–1995 I 54 4 26.2 20 NR Trauma team NR Mandatory
Adesanya et al. [57] (Nigeria, 1998) Prospective 1992–1996 NR 78 14 30 NR NR Consultant surgeon NR NR
Velmahos et al. [43] (USA, 1997) Prospective 1994–1995 I 192 130 24 NR Serial NR Yes Selective
Demetriades et al. [51] (USA, 1997) Prospective 1994–1995 I 309 106 24.7 NR 24 h Admitting surgeon Yes Selective
Wessells et al. [34] (USA, 1997) Retrospective 1980–1995 NR 45 4 30.6 NR NR NR Yes Selective
Chmielewski et al. [41] (USA, 1995) Prospective 1991–1994 I 184 12 NR NR 48 h NR Yes Selective
Renz and Feliciano [42] (USA, 1994) Prospective 1990–1993 I 32 13 NR NR Frequent Resident, at least twice a day by the primary investigator Yes Selective
Demetriades et al. [52] (USA, 1991) Prospective 1988–1990 NR 146 41 28 NR Regular Same surgeon NR NR
Muckart et al. [53] (SA, 1990) Prospective Jul–Aug, 1988 NR 111 22 24 NR 2-hourly NR NR NR
McAlvanah and Shaftan [54] (USA, 1978) Prospective 1963–1971 NR 221 101 NR NR Every ½ to 1 h for 24–36 h NR NR NR
Lowe et al. [55] (USA, 1977) Retrospective 1972–1974 NR 362 55 27.8 NR 48 h Surgical resident supervised by attending staff NR Selective
Taylor [68] (USA, 1973) Retrospective 1962–1970 NR 254 8 NR NR NR NR NR NR
Richter and Zaki [58] (USA, 1967) Retrospective 1957–1966 NR 35 13 NR NR NR Surgeon NR NR
Ryzoff et al. [56] USA, 1966) Retrospective 1956–1963 NR 50 17 NR NR Frequent NR NR NR
  1. abdo abdominal, CT computed tomography, GSW gunshot wound, ISS Injury Severity Score, NR not reported, SA South Africa, SNOM selective nonoperative management, USA United States of America