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Table 2 Risk of bias assessment of the 41 included studies

From: Outcomes of selective nonoperative management of civilian abdominal gunshot wounds: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study participation Study attrition Prognostic factors measurement Outcome measurement Statistical analysis and reporting
Reed et al. [65] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Peponis et al. [35] Moderate Moderate Low Low Low
Starling et al. [59] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Navsaria et al. [45] Low Moderate Moderate Low Low
Laing et al. [30] Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate
Cesar et al. [61] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Inaba et al. [46] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Starling et al. [40] Moderate Moderate Low Low Low
Zafar et al. [62] Low High Moderate Moderate Low
Hope et al. [63] Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Low
Mnguni et al. [36] Moderate Moderate Low Low Low
Schnüriger et al. [66] Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
Fikry et al. [31] Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Low
Bjurlin et al. [32] Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
Navsaria and Nicol [33] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Voelzke and McAninch [37] Low Moderate Low Moderate Moderate
Navsaria et al. [47] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Schmelzer et al. [64] Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Low
Chamisa [48] Low Moderate Moderate Low Low
DuBose et al. [60] Low Moderate Low Low Low
MacLeod et al. [44] Low Moderate Low Low High
Demetriades et al. [38] Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low
Velmahos et al. [12] Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
Omoshoro-Jones et al. [49] Low Low Low Low Low
Múnera et al. [11] Low Low Low Low Moderate
Velmahos et al. [39] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Demetriades et al. [50] Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
Velmahos et al. [67] Low Moderate Low Low Low
Adesanya et al. [57] Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
Velmahos et al. [43] Low Moderate Moderate Low Low
Demetriades et al. [51] Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
Wessells et al. [34] Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate
Chmielewski et al. [41] Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
Renz and Feliciano [42] Low Low Moderate Low Low
Demetriades et al. [52] Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
Muckart et al. [53] Low Low Low Low Moderate
McAlvanah and Shaftan [54] Low Moderate Moderate Low Low
Lowe et al. [55] Moderate Moderate Moderate High High
Taylor [68] Moderate High High High High
Richter and Zaki [58] Moderate Moderate High Moderate Moderate
Ryzoff et al. [56] Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate