Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of the articles reviewed

From: Medications and patient safety in the trauma setting: a systematic review

Study Country of origin and type and length of study Patient setting evaluated Number of patients What was evaluated? Level of evidence and negative criteria for decreasing level of evidence Results
S. Miller et al. USA—prospective, 13 months Admission to trauma service 234 MR accuracy of trauma team and admission nurse compared to pharmacist Level IV
Not RCT, no follow up required, excluded if missing data
4% overall accuracy
M. Miller et al. Australia—retrospective, 24 months Admission to trauma service 533 Compared patients without a medication history to those known to be currently or not currently taking (ACAP) Level IV
Not RCT, heterogeneous comparison groups
Mortality higher (p value = 0.004) for ACAP (24%) vs no-ACAP (11%) vs no medication history (11%); LOS, ICU LOS, vent days, disability at discharged did not differ
Pascual et al. Spain—prospective, 1 ½ months Admission to trauma service 164 Discrepancies in hospital medications ordered at admission when compared to home medications Level IV
Not RCT, no evaluation of heterogeneity
1(+) error(s) were found in 48.8% total; 67% admitted from ED vs. 44.8% for scheduled admission; errors of omission were the most common at 72%; risk increased by 33% for each drug taken
Nishijima et al. USA—retrospective, 12 months Prehospital 2110 Similarity of EMS providers MR for ACAP in head trauma compared to ED providers Level IV
Not RCT, no evaluation of heterogeneity
Similarity obtained for warfarin; not obtained for direct oral anticoagulant agents, aspirin, or other anticoagulants
Total Patients    3041    
  1. Negative criteria for decreasing level of evidence listed in the “Methods” section
  2. Key: MR medication reconciliation, ACAP anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications, LOS length of stay, vs versus, ED emergency department, RCT randomized control trial