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Table 5 Univariate analysis for OM as a definitive treatment

From: The World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) spleen trauma classification: a useful tool in the management of splenic trauma

Characteristics Mean ± SD Median (range) p value
Successful NOM OM + fNOM
WSES I 79.5% 20.5% < 0.001
WSES II 33.3% 66.7%
WSES III 27.8% 72.2%
WSES IV 13.3% 86.7%
ASST 1 100.0% 00.0% < 0.001
ASST 2 68.8% 31.2%
ASST 3 35.3% 64.7%
ASST 4 16.7% 83.3%
ASST 5 0.0% 100.0%
WSES I-II-III 53.2% 46.8% < 0.001
WSES IV 13.3% 86.7%
ASST ≤ 3 56.3% 43.7% < 0.001
ASST > 3 14.3% 85.7%
Age (years) 48.79 ± 17.94 51.36 ± 18.74 n.s.
47.63 (18.00–87.00) 49.00 (17.00–91.00)
No anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs 39.29% 60.71% n.s.
Anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs 40.00% 60.00%
HR (bpm) 85.57 ± 17.94 93.87 ± 21.32 0.039
85.00 (48.00–133.00) 90.00 (55.00–145.00)
HR < 120 bpm 48.00% 52.00% n.s.
HR > 120 bpm 38.30% 61.70%
SBP (mmHg) 122.21 ± 20.18 107.54 ± 26.57 0.001
120.00 (70.00–170.00) 110.00 (53.00–167.00)
SBP > 90 mmHg 50.5% 49.5% < 0.001
SBP < 90 mmHg 13.0% 87.0%
Shock index < 1 51.0% 49.0% 0.021
Shock index > 1 15.4% 84.6%
ISS 21.89 ± 10.25 32.81 ± 13.02 < 0.001
22.00 (5.00–48.00) 29.00 (9.00–75.00)
ISS < 25 70.0% 30.0% < 0.001
ISS > 25 26.8% 73.2%  
Lactate 2.99 ± 1.96 3.45 ± 1.78 n.s.
2.44 (0.80–9.24) 3.08 (1.27–8.00)
BE (mmol/L) − 3.07 ± 3.87 − 3.40 ± 2.94 n.s.
− 2.80 (− 14.50–2.10) − 3.10 (− 9.50–1.80)
pH 7.32 ± 0.08 7.29 ± 0.15 n.s.
7.34 (7.13–7.43) 7.31 (6.80–7.47)
Hb (g/dL) 13.78 ± 1.88 11.29 ± 2.66 < 0.001
14.1 (10.10–16.80) 11.60 (3.30–16.40)
Hb ≤ 12 g/dL 24.1% 75.9% < 0.001
Hb > 12 g/dL 60.6% 39.4%
BE > − 5 mmol/L 57.7% 42.3% n.s.
BE < − 5 mmol/L 50.0% 50.0%
Brain injuries 29.2% 70.8% n.s.
No brain injuries 47.0% 53.0%
Associated abdominal lesions 36.2% 63.8% n.s.
No associated abdominal lesions 50.0% 50.0%
Trauma dynamic    n.s.
 -Invested pedestrian 45.5% 54.5%
 -Car 26.3% 73.7%
 -Motorbike 53.9% 46.1%
 -Bike 60.0% 40.0%
 -Precipitation 52.9% 47.1%
 -Others 42.9% 57.1%
Contrast blush 33.3% 66.7% 0.025
No contrast blush 56.8% 43.2%
Pseudoaneurysm 25.0% 75.0% n.s.
No pseudoaneurysm 50.5% 49.5%
Hemoperitoneum at CT scan 43.0% 57.0% n.s.
Number of quadrants with hemoperitoneum at CT scan
 -> 1 30.0% 70.0% 0.001
 -≤ 1 59.7% 40.3%
INR (s) 1.11 ± 0.15 1.59 ± 1.02 0.001
1.15 (0.66–1.38) 1.18 (1.04–5.05)
INR > 1.5 s 11.8% 88.2% 0.002
INR < 1.5 s 48.5% 51.5%
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 221.06 ± 57.54 172.76 ± 62.17 n.s.
216.00 (156.00–401.00) 175.00 (26.00–260.00)
PLT/mm3 218.82 ± 47.96 200.76 ± 79.31 n.s.
220.00 (137.00–315.00) 190.00 (55.00–302.00)
Positive eco-fast 29.0% 71.0% 0.002
Negative eco-fast 59.1% 40.9%
RBC transfusion at the ED 11.5% 88.5% < 0.001
No RBC transfusion at the ED 53.0% 47.0%
  1. ISS Injury Severity Score, HR heart rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, ED emergency department, BE base excess, Lac lactates, Hb hemoglobin, RBC red blood cells, AAST American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, WSES World Society of Emergency Surgery, PLT platelet, CB contrast blush, PSA pseudoaneurysms, INR International Normalized Ratio