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Table 1 Distribution of clinical predictive variables of in-hospital mortality

From: Physiological parameters for Prognosis in Abdominal Sepsis (PIPAS) Study: a WSES observational study

Variables Total patients Dead Survivors RR p value
n 3137 n 280 n 2857
(100%) (8.9%) (91.1%)
Age > 80 years 246 (7.8) 72 (25.7) 174 (6.1) 4.07 (3.22–5.14) < 0.001
Immunodeficiency 240 (7.7) 56 (20.0) 184 (6.4) 3.02 (2.32–3.92) < 0.001
Malignancy 333 (10.6) 83 (29.6) 250 (8.8) 3.55 (2.82–4.46) < 0.001
Severe cardiovascular disease 406 (12.9) 106 (37.9) 300 (10.5) 4.10 (3.30–5.10) < 0.001
Diabetes 400 (12.8) 76 (27.1) 324 (11.3) 2.55 (2.00–3.25) < 0.001
Severe CKD 141 (4.5) 52 (18.6) 89 (3.1) 4.85 (3.78–6.22) < 0.001
Severe COPD 186 (5.9) 60 (21.4) 126 (4.4) 4.33 (3.39–5.52) < 0.001
Core temperature (°C)
 < 36.0 85 (2.7) 23 (8.2) 62 (2.2) 3.21 (2.22–4.64) < 0.001
 36.0–38.0 2292 (73.1) 185 (66.1) 2107 (73.7) 0.72 (0.57–0.91) < 0.05
 > 38.0 760 (24.2) 72 (25.7) 688 (24.1) 1.08 (0.84–1.40) 0.54
Hearth rate (bpm)
 < 60 8 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 7 (0.2) 1.40 (0.22–8.80) 0.72
 60–100 1919 (61.2) 117 (41.8) 1802 (63.1) 0.46 (0.36–0.57) < 0.001
 > 100 1210 (38.6) 162 (57.9) 1048 (36.7) 2.19 (1.74–2.74) < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 < 90 138 (4.4) 49 (17.5) 89 (3.1) 4.61 (3.57–5.96) < 0.001
 90–100 388 (12.4) 70 (25.0) 318 (11.1) 2.36 (1.84–3.03) < 0.001
 > 100 2610 (83.2) 161 (57.5) 2449 (85.7) 0.27 (0.22–0.34) < 0.001
Respiratory rate (breaths/min)
 < 22 2244 (71.5) 124 (44.3) 2120 (74.2) 0.32 (0.25–0.40) < 0.001
 22–29 684 (21.8) 97 (34.6) 587 (20.5) 1.90 (1.50–2.39) < 0.001
 30–35 154 (4.9) 39 (13.9) 115 (4.0) 3.13 (2.33–4.21) < 0.001
 > 35 55 (1.8) 20 (7.1) 35 (1.2) 4.31 (2.98–6.23) < 0.001
AVPU responsiveness scale
 Alert 2917 (93.0) 187 (66.8) 2730 (95.6) 0.15 (0.12–0.19) < 0.001
 Voice 123 (3.9) 54 (19.3) 69 (2.4) 5.85 (4.62–7.41) < 0.001
 Pain 74 (2.4) 23 (8.2) 51 (1.8) 3.70 (2.59–5.30) < 0.001
 Unresponsive 23 (0.7) 16 (5.7) 7 (0.2) 8.21 (6.12–11.01) < 0.001
NRS
 0–3 80 (2.6) 16 (5.7) 64 (2.2) 2.32 (1.47–3.64) < 0.001
 4–6 1512 (48.2) 112 (40.0) 1400 (49.0) 0.72 (0.57–0.90) < 0.05
 7–10 1112 (35.4) 128 (45.7) 984 (34.4) 1.53 (1.23–1.92) < 0.001
 Not reported 433 (13.8) 24 (8.6) 409 (14.3) NA NA
qSOFA score
 0 1367 (43.6) 37 (13.2) 1330 (46.6) 0.20 (0.14–0.28) < 0.001
 1 1323 (42.2) 109 (38.9) 1214 (42.5) 0.87 (0.96–1.10) 0.25
 2 353 (11.3) 84 (30.0) 269 (9.4) 3.38 (2.68–4.26) < 0.001
 3 94 (3.0) 50 (17.9) 44 (1.5) 7.04 (5.61–8.82) < 0.001
  1. All p values calculated using two-sided chi-square test
  2. RR: risk ratio, NA: not applicable, CKD: chronic kidney disease, COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AVPU: alert/verbal/painful/unresponsive, NRS: numerical rating scale, qSOFA: Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment