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Table 2 Baseline characteristics laparotomy

From: Outcome of trauma-related emergency laparotomies, in an era of far-reaching specialization

  Total (n = 268) Survived (n = 223) Deceased (n = 45) P value
Indication for laparotomy     
- Hemodynamic instability 107 68 39 <0.001
- Penetrating injury* 42 41 2
- Suspicion of hollow viscus injury 61 59 2
- Ongoing blood loss 24 21 3
- Retroperitoneal (pancreas/duodenum/vascular) 11 11 0
- Severe abdominal pain 10 10 0
- Suspicion of diaphragm injury 5 5 0
- Ileus after trauma 6 6 0
- Abdominal compartment syndrome 2 2 0
CT-scan before laparotomy (missing = 2) 168 154 (69%) 14 (31%) <0.001
Average time to laparotomy > 24 h (days)   5.6 (± 4.8) 7.7 (± 7.6) NS
Time to laparotomy (hours)     
 0–2 h 190 149 41  
 2–6 h 17 16 1  
 6–24 h 24 24 0  
 > 24 h 37 34 3  
Injuries found (numbers)     
- Spleen 87 71 16 NS
- Liver 71 56 15 NS
- Stomach 19 13 6 0.073
- Pancreas 12 10 2 NS
- Duodenum 11 9 2 NS
- Colon defect 70 62 8 0.091
- Short bowel defect 52 47 5 0.084
- Bowel/mesentery contusion 94 77 17 NS
- Kidney 30 25 5 NS
- Bladder 8 5 3 NS
- Diaphragm 28 20 8 0.068
- Vascular injury 47 29 18 < 0.001
- Retroperitoneal major vascular 63 44 19 0.002
- Abdominal wall defect 28 24 4 NS
- Pelvic fractures 54 43 11 NS
- Secondary caecum blowout 7 6 1 NS
Time of procedure (min) 62.0 (± 30.0) 61.5 (± 28.8) 61.4 (± 32.5) NS
Number of laparotomies per patient 1.8 (± 1.4) 1.8 (± 1.5) 1.5 (± 0.8)  
Procedures during laparotomy (n) 486    
- Damage control surgery 105 67 38 <0.001
- Non-therapeutic laparotomy 40 35 5 NS
- Abdominal packing 111 77 34 <0.001
- Splenectomy/Spleen preserving 53 41 12 NS
- (Partial) hepatectomy 2 2 0 NS
- Liver repair (sealants, sutures) 17 15 2 NS
- Nephrectomy/renal repair 7 4 3 NS
- Gastric repair 16 12 4 NS
- Colonic resection 35 29 6 NS
- Colonic repair (suture) 48 46 4 0.049
- Short bowel resection 26 22 4 NS
- Short bowel repair (suture) 36 32 4 NS
- Anastomosis (colon/short bowel) 46 44 4 0.035
- (Partial) pancreatectomy 2 1 1 NS
- Duodenal repair (anastomosis) 5 4 1 NS
- Pancreatic/duodenal suture/drainage 10 9 1 NS
- Urinary bladder repair 6 5 1 NS
- Vascular ligation (small vessels) 55 41 14 0.041
- Vascular repair (large vessels) 13 4 9 <0.001
- Diaphragm repair 29 21 8 0.082
- Evacuation bile/hematoma 4 4 0 NS
- Abdominal wall repair 20 19 1 NS
LOS intensive care (days) 5.12 (± 8.8) 6.06 (± 9.9) 3.39 (± 4.9) 0.002
LOS Hospital (days) 16.2 (± 20.6) 19.4 (± 21.7) 3.72 (± 5.3) <0.001
  1. Baseline characteristics of all emergency laparotomies performed (N = 268), comparing characteristics of the ones who survived (N = 223) to those that did not (N = 45). Significant parameters were indication for laparotomy with hemodynamic instability having the highest number of deaths, CT scan before laparotomy, (retroperitoneal) vascular injuries, and some of the procedures performed were seen more in the deceased population. Length of stay in hospital or ICU was significantly longer for the patients who survived