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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants with emergency colorectal surgery

From: Association of pre-operative chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury with in-hospital outcomes of emergency colorectal surgery: a cohort study

 Total
n = 3002
CKD(-)AKI(-)
n = 1963
CKD(-)AKI(+)
n = 541
CKD(+)AKI(-)
n = 340
CKD(+)AKI(+)
n = 59
ESRD
n = 99
P value
Age (years), mean ± SD70.3 ± 15.466.9 ± 16.176.8 ± 12.377.7 ± 10.878.9 ± 9.472.5 ± 10.8< 0.001
Sex (male), %54.545.546.844.747.540.40.815
Type of surgery, %      0.927
  Surgery for acute pan-peritonitis19.819.620.518.523.721.2 
 Colectomy57.256.858.457.457.658.6 
 Colostomy13.614.111.815.010.29.1 
 Rectal resection9.49.59.29.18.511.1 
Use of laparoscopy, %4.05.01.53.201.00.001
Indication for surgery, %      < 0.001
 Peritonitis or perforation62.858.975.157.971.284.9 
 Obstruction25.327.418.330.323.75.1 
 Bleeding or diverticulosis2.32.50.93.81.71.0 
 Others9.611.25.77.93.49.1 
Presence of colorectal cancer, %38.642.533.635.023.710.1< 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean ± SD21.3 ± 4.221.3 ± 4.221.5 ± 4.321.1 ± 3.821.6 ± 3.720.4 ± 4.20.108
Comorbidities, %       
 Diabetes14.412.214.621.820.327.3< 0.001
 Heart failure4.02.54.410.63.49.1< 0.001
 Chronic pulmonary disease3.84.03.93.81.72.00.786
 Chronic liver disease2.41.92.83.56.82.00.062
 Cancer (except for colorectal cancer)16.916.713.118.215.39.10.067
Serum creatinine testsa, median [IQR]       
 Baseline creatinine (mg/dl)0.75 [0.59–0.81]0.72 [0.59–0.80]0.72 [0.57–0.77]1.07 [0.89–1.41]1.01 [0.82–1.37]-< 0.001
 Admission creatinine (mg/dl)0.80 [0.64–1.07]0.70 [0.59–0.83]1.37 [1.14–1.90]1.07 [0.83–1.44]1.90 [1.56–2.84]-< 0.001
Blood tests at admission, median [IQR]       
 White blood cell count (/1000 μl)8.5 [5.0–12.5]8.8 [5.4–12.8]8.1 [4.4–12.8]7.9 [5.07–10.8]9.2 [5.1–12.5]5.0 [2.8–9.7]< 0.001
 Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.1 [10.0–13.8]12.6 [10.5–14.0]11.4 [9.6–13.6]11.2 [9.4–12.9]11.0 [8.8–12.6]10.5 [9.0–11.7]< 0.001
 Platelet count (/10,000 μl)21.5 [16.1–28.6]22.7 [17.4–29.7]19.7 [14.3–26.9]19.7 [14.4–26.5]17.0 [13.5–26.2]15.0 [9.8–20.6]< 0.001
 Total protein (g/dl)6.2 [5.1–7.0]6.3 [5.3–7.0]5.9 [4.6–6.8]6.1 [5.1–6.9]5.9 [4.9–6.8]6.0 [5.2–6.7]< 0.001
 Total bilirubin (mg/dl)0.7 [0.5–1.0]0.7 [0.5–1.0]0.8 [0.5–1.1]0.7 [0.5–1.0]0.7 [0.5–1.2]0.4 [0.3–0.6]< 0.001
 C-reactive protein (mg/dl)3.9 [0.5–14.2]2.7 [0.3–11.9]11.6 [2.3–22.0]2.8 [0.5–12.7]13.6 [3.4–21.8]4.8 [1.0–16.0]< 0.001
  1. AKI acute kidney injury, CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ESRD end-stage renal disease, IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation
  2. aPatients with ESRD were excluded